Glossary of Medical Terms, Abbreviations & Symbols

Dutch-English, French-English, German-English


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Sa = saturation (rmed., blood gases) / SA = 1. semaine d'aménorrhée: SA 6 semaines = LMP 6 weeks, (NB not the same as 6 weeks pregnant)(gyn./obstet.); 2. seuil anaérobique = anaerobic threshold; 3. spondyloarthropathy  / coeur en sabot = wooden-shoe heart (rad.) / langue saburrale = coated tongue; furred tongue / sacré = sacral (anat.) / SAD = subacromial decompression (shoulder) / SADM = sodium azide dextrose medium (microbiol.) / saillie = eminence, prominence (anat.) / saldiurétique = saluretic / salle de surveillance postinterventionnelle, see PACU / salpingite aïgue see PID / Salureticum = diuretic / Salve = burst (medical imaging) / SA-MCF = sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (see also BT) (vet.) / Samenerguß = ejaculation (act); ejaculate (product) / Samenhügel = seminal hillock; seminal colliculus / samenklonteren = agglutinate; clump (cells) / Samentierchen = spermatozoa / Sammelröhrchen = collecting tubules (kidney) / Sandfliege = sandfly (usually Phlebotomus) / Sandfloh = sand flea; jigger; chigoe; Tunga penetrans / Sandimmun® (preparation of cycosporin) (pharm.) / Sanduhrmagen = hourglass stomach; bilocular stomach / pou de San José; San-José-Schildlaus = San José scale (vet.) / sangle abdominale = abdominal wall / sangle musculaire = muscle sling (anat.) / sangsue = leech / St Joachimstal's disease / santé (définition OMS, 1946): "La santé est un état de complet bien-être physique, mental et social, ne consistant pas seulement en une absence de maladie ou d'infirmité." (for EN definition see health) / SaO2 = arterial oxygen saturation (blood gases) / SAP = 1. serum alkaline phosphatase; 2. systolic arterial pressure, see SBP / saphène = saphenous nerve; saphena / Sargdeckelkristalle = coffin-lid crystals (ammoniomagnesium phosphate in urine) / SARM = Staphylococcus aureus résistant à la methicilline see MRSA / SARS = severe acute respiratory syndrome (type of pneumonia first reported February 2003 in South China) / SAT = sérum antitétanique see ATS / artère satellite = satellite artery / Sättigung = saturation (rmed.,blood gases) / saturnisme = lead poisoning; saturnism / Sauerstoffaufnahme = oxygen uptake (rmed.) / Sauerstoffdruck = oxygen tension (rmed., blood gases) / Sauerstoffmangel = hypoxia / Sauerstoffverbrauch = oxygen consumption (rmed.) / Saugkompresse = absorbent dressing pad (wound care) / Saugnapf = sucker; mouth disc (worms) / Saugwurm = fluke; trematode worm / Saumepithel = junctional epithelium / säurefest = acid-fast (bacterium) / sauvage = wild-type; non-mutated (genetics) / SB = 1. Schmierblutung = spotting, light bleeding (gyn./obstet.); 2. Serum/Blut, thus SB-Ca = serum calcium; SB-Na = serum sodium, etc.; 3. si besoin, see PRN; 4. single breath (test) (rmed.) / SBD = systolischer Blutdruck, see SBP / SBMs = specified bovine materials (food safety: newer name for SBOs, includes materials which are not offals) / SBOs = specified bovine offals (food safety: in context of BSE e.g.) / SBP = systolic blood pressure / SBS = 1. Säure-Basenstatus = acid-base status; 2. sick building syndrome (OSH) / sc = sans correction = unadjusted (med. stat.) / SC = 1. selenite cystine (broth) (microbiol.); 2. subcutaneous(ly) / SCA = syndrome coronarien aigu see 1. ACS; 2. sex chromosome aneuploidy / SCABU = special care baby unit (in UK = Level 1 neonatal units) / scanner (FR) = 1. scanner (machine); 2. scanning (technique); 3. scan (image produced) / scanographie see CT 3. / maladie des scaphandriers = decompression sickness; "the bends" / scarificateur = scarifier (instrument) / SCE = sister chromatid exchange / schaafwond = abrasion / schaambeen = pubic bone; os pubis / schaambeenvoeg = symphysis pubis / schaamheuvel see Schamhügel / schaamluis = crab louse; Pthirus pubis / schaamspleet = vulva (gyn.) / Schachbrettstimulation = chequerboard stimulation (MRI) / Schädigung = impairment (handicap) / Schädigungspotential = pathogenicity; pathogenic potential / Schafpocken = sheep-pox; ovine smallpox; variola ovina / Schafshaut = amnion / Schaltknochen = sesamoid bone / Schambein see schaambeen / Schamhügel = mons pubis; mons veneris (gyn.) / Schamlippen = labia (gyn.) / Schanker = chancre / Schanzkrawatte = surgical collar (orth.) / Scharlach = scarlet fever; scarlatina / scharniergewricht = hinge joint / Schatten = opacity (rad./rmed.: preferable to "shadow") / Schaufeltrage = scoop stretcher (for moving patient with e.g. spinal injury) / "Schaufensterkrankheit" see IC 2. / Schaumstoffschiene = foam gutter splint; foam leg trough / Scheckhaut = vitiligo; piebald skin / schede see Scheide / schedelnaden = sutures of the skull / scheelzien = squint, see strabisme; Strabismus / scheenbeen = tibia; shin bone / Scheide = vagina (gyn.); sheath (nerve, tendon) / Scheidenvorhof = vestibulum of vagina (gyn.) / Scheidewand = septum (anat.) / Scheinschwangerschaft = phantom pregnancy; nervous pregnancy / Scheintod = apparent death / Scheitelbein = parietal bone / Scheitelfaktor = crest factor (vibration measurement) / Schenkel = 1. thigh (= Oberschenkel); 2. crus (diaphragm, plural crura) / Schenkelblock = bundle-branch block (card.) / Schenkelhals = neck of femur; collum femoris / scheurbuik see scorbut / Schiedsprobe = referee sample; umpire sample (toxicol.) / Schiele = squint, see strabisme; Strabismus / Schienbein see scheenbeen / schijndood see Scheintod / Schilddrüse; schildklier = thyroid gland / Schildknorpel = thyroid cartilage / schildwachtklier = sentinel node (breast cancer) / Schlackenstoffe = roughage; dietary fibre / Schläfenbein = temporal bone / Schläfenlappen = temporal lobe / Schlafmittel = sedative; hypnotic (drug) / Schlafmohn = opium poppy; papaver somniferum / Schlafsucht = narcolepsy; hypersomnia / Schlagader = artery / Schlaganfall = 1. (apoplectic) stroke; 2. heart attack / Schlagvolumen = stroke volume (card.) / Schlauchpilz = ascomycete / schleierartig = ground-glass (opacity) (rad./rmed.) / Schleiferlunge = knife grinder's asthma (rmed.) / Schleim = mucus / Schleimbeutel = synovial bursa / Schleimbeutelentzündung = bursitis / Schleimhaut = mucosa; mucous membrane / Schleudertrauma = whiplash injury / Schlottergelenk = flail joint / Schluckauf = hiccups; hiccoughs; singultus / Schluckimpfung = oral vaccination / Schlund = pharynx / Schlüsselbein = clavicle; collar bone / Schmarotzer = parasite / Schmerztherapie = pain management / Schmetterlingsfigur see aile de papillon /  / Schnecke = cochlea (ear) / Schneebergerlungenkrankheit = Schneeberg's disease (uranium-induced bronchial cancer) / Schneidezahn = incisor / Schnellschnitt = intraoperative frozen section, see FS / Schnellverarbeitung = rapid tissue processing; same-day rush processing (of paraffin-embedded samples; not done intraoperatively) / Schnittentbindung = (delivery by) caesarian section (obst.) / Schnurren see adventitious breath sounds / Schocklunge (German term now largely obsol.) see ARDS / Schockniere = shock kidney / schollig see motté / Schonkost = bland diet; bland foods / schoteltje = scutulum (favus) / Schrankservice = laundry-to-locker service (hospital admin.) / Schrittmacher = pacemaker (natural or artificial) / schrompelnier see Schrumpfniere / Schröpfen = cupping (blood flow) / Schrumpfniere = atrophic kidney; sclerotic kidney / Schrumpfung = atrophy / Schub = episode; bout; attack (fever e.g.) / schubförmig = relapsing-remitting (multiple sclerosis) / schubvlecht; schubziekte = psoriasis / schudziekte see Parkinson / Schulmedizin = conventional medicine; "allopathy" (as opposed to e.g. homeopathic medicine) / Schuppen = dandruff (derm.) / Schuppenflechte; Schuppenkrankheit = psoriasis / Schuppenzelle = squamous cell / schurft = scabies / schurftmijt = itch mite; Sarcoptes scabeii (causes scabies in humans, mange in animals) / Schüttelfrost = chill; chills / Schüttelkrampf = convusion / Schüttelkultur = shaken culture (microbiol.) / Schüttellähmung see Parkinson / Schutzzone = infected area (vet.) / Schwammkörper = corpus spongiosum (penis) / Schwangerschaftsunterbrechung = (medical) abortion; termination (NB in German law, Abtreibung means criminal abortion; cf. also Fehlgeburt = spontaneous abortion; miscarriage) / Schwebstoffe = aerosols; airborne particulates (rmed.) / Schwebeteilchen = airborne particulates (rmed.) / ärztliche Schweigepflicht = (duty of) medical secrecy; medical confidentiality / Schweinebandwurm = pork tapeworm; Taenia solium / Schweinehüterkrankheit = swineherd's disease; swine leptospirosis; meningitis porcinarii (Leptospira interrogans pomona); Schweißerkrankheit, Schweißerlunge = (arc) welder's lung; pulmonary siderosis / Schweizer Schiene see Schaumstoffschiene / Schwellkörper = erectile organ; erectile tissue; (penis) corpus cavernosum / Schwerbehindertengesetz (D) = (suggest) Severely Disabled Persons Act 1974 / schweres akutes Atemwegssyndrom see SARS / Schwertfortsatz = xiphoid process; processus xiphoideus / Schwiele = 1. callus (derm.); 2. massive lesion; confluent lesion, see also Herd (rmed.) / Schwielensilikose see PMF / SCHWINDEL = dizziness (plus numerous other lay terms: but NB medically, only dizziness entailing a spinning sensation is truly “vertigo”). Two broad categories: peripheral (caused by inner ear infection or other disorder) and central (caused by brain injury or disease). / Benommenheitsschwindel = “muzziness”; “brain fog” (may be effect of medication) / Drehschwindel = vertigo; “spinning vertigo” / gutartiger Lagerungsschwindel see BPPV / peripheral Schwindel; peripherer Schwindel = peripheral dizziness / Schwankschwindel = unsteadiness; disequilibrium / phobischer Schwankschwindel = presyncopal dizziness (e.g. in panic attack) / zentraler Schwindel = central dizziness / Schwindsucht = 1. (of lungs) tuberculosis; 2. (generally) phthisis; wasting / Schwingungswirkung auf den Menschen = human response to vibration (OSH) / Schwund = loss; atrophy (tone, tissue substance) / SCID = severe combined immunodeficiency (suffered by e.g. "bubble babies" who are forced to live in sterile bubbles) / scintigraphie du sequelette = bone scanning, scintigraphy; product is a bone scan or scintigram / scissural = fissural / scissure = fissure (e.g. between lobes of lung) / scissure centrale = central sulcus (brain) / scléreux = sclerotic (adj.) / sclérotique = sclera (eye) / SCNB = stereotactic core needle biopsy / SCNT = somatic cell nuclear transfer / scorbut = scurvy; scorbutus / scorbuut see scorbut / SCP = 1. single-cell protein; 2. sodium chloride-peptone (diluent, microbiol.) / SCPRI = Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants (FR) / SD = 1. Schilddrüse; 2. Sprague Dawley (rats, animal assays) / SDH = 1. sorbitol dehydrogenase; 2. succinate dehydrogenase / SDRA = 1. syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigu (formerly syndrome de détresse respiratoire des adultes) = acute respiratory distress syndrome (formerly adult respiratory distress syndrome) (ARDS) / veine SE = veine saphène externe, see SSV / SEAC = Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (UK) / comprimé sécable = scored tablet, see also Bruchrille (pharm.) / sechste Krankheit see sixth disease / to seed (verb): "non-nutrient agar seeded with (bacterium)" / Segelklappe = cusp of valve (heart) / segmentdemyelinisering = segmental demyelination / temps de séjour = residence time (substance in body) / Sehhügel = thalamus / Sehnenscheide = tendinous sheath / Sehnerv = optic nerve / Sehpurpur = rhodopsin; visual purple (ophth.) / Seitenast = tributary (vein) / Seitenwender = musculus rectus lateralis bulbi (eye) / Sekundenherztod = instantaneous cardiac death; fatal heart attack (irreversible cardiac arrest) / 1-Sekundenkapazität; 1-Sekundenwert = forced expiratory volume in 1 second, see FEV1 (rmed.) / Sekundentod see Sekundenherztod / / selle turcique = sella turcica / selles = stool; stools / besoin d'aller aux selles = the call to stool / sématone (Blip-Blip) = bleeper / "semence" = semen / semi-lunaire = semilunar bone (hand) / Senker = depressor (muscles) / Senkfuß = flatfoot; pes planus / Senkmagen = gastroptosis / SEP = sclérose en plaques, see MS / Sequoiose = sequoiosis (rmed.) / séreuse = serous membrane / séringue-aiguille en une pièce = syringe-needle combination; séringue montée = pre-filled syringe / pousse-séringue = syringe driver / sérique = serum (adj.) / séroagglutination = serum agglutination; seroagglutination / séroculture = serum culture / sérodiagnose = serodiagnosis / sérodifférent = HIV-discordant (AIDS patients, e.g.) / séronégatif = seronegative / séropositif = seropositive / Serosa = serous membrane; serous coat; tunica serosa / séroprotection = seroprotection / sérosité = serous fluid / sérosités infectés = infected fluid collections (burn e.g.) / fil serti = swaged suture (needle + thread assembly: the needle  has a depression into which the suture end is swaged (crimped), rather than an eye through which it is passed; thus only 1 thickness of suture has to be pulled through the tissue, causing less trauma) / monofilament serti = (swaged-on) monofilament suture / sertissage = swaging, see fil serti / serumziekte = serum sickness / SES = simulated exposure sample / Sesambein = sesamoid bone / sessile = sessile (polyp e.g. = attached by a base, not a stalk or peduncle) / Metastasen setzen = to metastasise / Seuchenteppich = disinfectant mat (foot and mouth control e.g.) / seuil de perception collectif = collective perception threshold: represents the minimum odorous concentration perceived by 50% of a group of healthy persons whose olfactory system is in good order (ILO) / seuil de perception individuel = individual perception threshold: the minimum odorous concentration that induces in a single person an initial positive response and, after a second test, a confirmative response (ILO) / sevrage = weaning (off an addiction) / sex ratio: the number of boys born per 100 girls expressed as e.g. 105/100 / SFTG = Société Française de Toxicologie Génétique / SG = sang = blood / magnésium SG = blood Mg / SGAW = specific airway conductance (rmed.) / SGOT = serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (now old-fashioned, see AST) / SGPT = serum glutamic puruvic transaminase (now old-fashioned, see ALT) / Shannon-Wiener index (of water pollution) (USA) / shellfish poisoning, diarrhoetic poisoning, paralytic poisoning / "shock lung" syndrome see ARDS / SHT = Schädelhirntrauma = craniocerebral injury; head injury / veine SI = veine saphène interne, see LSV / Sichelzellanämie = sickle-cell anaemia; drepanocytosis / Sicherheitskoeffizient = safety factor (tox.) / SIDA = syndrome immunodéficitaire acquis = acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) / sidatique see sidéen / sidderen = fibrillation (card.) / sidéen = infected with AIDS; AIDS sufferer; AIDS patient / sidénologue =  consultant in HIV medicine / sidéropénique = iron-deficient / Siderose = (pulmonary) siderosis (rmed.) / Siderosilikose = sidero-silicosis (rmed.) / SIDS = sudden infant death syndrome; "cot death" / Sieb = tray (surg. instruments) / Siebbein = ethmoid bone / Siebhaut = decidua (gyn.) / siège = buttocks; (gyn/obst.) "breech" (presentation e.g.) / Siegelring = signet ring (sign, cavity) (rad./rmed.) / siéger: "les lesions siègent aux" = "lesions have a predilection for" (certain sites) / Signalweg = signalling pathway (genetics) / signe d'appel = presenting sign (or symptom, see symptôme) / signs and symptoms, see symptôme / sikkelcelanemie see Sichelzellanämie / Silberkugelsorption = silver ball sorption (pollution) / silicotique = silicotic (person or lesion) / Silikose = silicosis (rmed.) / sillon = (often) sulcus (anat.) / Simon Task of brain performance: tests "fluid intelligence" (ability to respond quickly to stimuli, even when distracted, as opposed to "crystallised" intelligence based on learned knowledge (The Times) / SIMV = syncrhonised intermittent madatory ventilation (rmed.) / sine materia = without known cause / sinistralité = left-handedness; sinistrality (= left laterality: preferential use of left hand, foot, eye & other paired body organs) / sinistrose = compensation neurosis / Sinnesphysiologie = aesthesiophysiology (the physiology of sensation and the sense organs) / sinus de la face = facial sinuses (NB not to be confused with sinus frontaux = frontal sinuses) / sinusknoop = sinoatrial node; natural pacemaker (card.) / SIOS = syndrome d'obstruction intestinale distale see DIOS / siphonnage = siphonage (bladder, gastric lavage) / SIRS = systemic inflammatory response syndrome / SITS = Société internationale de transfusion sanguine see ISBT / Situationsnaht = stay stitch (wounds) / Sitzbein = ischial bone; os ischii; ischium / sixth disease = exanthema subitum; roseola infantum / sjanker = chancre / Skoliose = scoliosis / Skorbut see scorbut / slaapbeen = temporal bone / slaapmiddel see Schlafmittel / slaapzucht see Schlafsucht / slagader see Schlagader / slagvolume = stroke volume (card.) / slakkenhuis see Schnecke / SLAP lesions = superior labrum anterior to posterior (shoulder) / SLE = 1. systemischer Lupus erythematodes; systemic lupus erythrematosus; 2. St. Louis encephalitis / sleutelbeen see Schlüsselbein / slijmbeurs = bursa; synovial bursa / slijmverdunner = mucolytic agent; mucolytic drug (pharm.) / slijmvlies = mucosa; mucous membrane / slijtage = wear and tear (joints e.g.) / SLN = sentinel lymph node (breast cancer) / SLNB = sentinel lymph node biopsy (breast cancer) / slokdarm = oesophagus / SLT = 1. Shiga-like toxins; 2. single lung transplant / sluitspier = sphincter (muscle) / SLVL = splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes / SMA = signes moteurs axiaux see AMS / smaakknoppen = tastebuds / smaakpapillen = lingual papillae (contain the tastebuds) / SMAC agar = sorbitol-MacConkey agar (microbiol.) / SMAF = smooth muscle active factor / SMAL = servizio locale della medicina preventiva (Italy) / SMR = standard mortality ratio (epidem.) / SNB see SLNB / SNC = système nerveux central see CNS / snijtand see Schneidezahn / SNOMED = Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine (USA initiative) / SNS = somatic nervous system / snuifstoffen = "sniffables" (recreationally inhaled solvents, e.g. lighter fuel, glues) / SOA = sexueel overdraagbare aandoeningen see STD / SOB = shortness of breath / SOD = superoxide dismutase / Sodbrennen = heartburn; pyrosis / rétention sodique = sodium retention / unité des soins continus, see HDU / SIOS = syndrome d'obstruction intestinale distale, see DIOS / SOB = salpingo-ovarectomie bilatérale see TAH BSO / soléaire = soleus (muscle) / Sollwert = reference value; predicted value; normal value (lung function testing: "% Sollwert" = "% predicted") / SOLUBILITY (definitions in Eur. Ph., USP, BP & DAB): sehr leicht löslich = very soluble; leicht löslich = freely soluble; wenig löslich = sparingly soluble; schwer löslich = slightly soluble; sehr schwer löslich = very slightly soluble, praktisch unlöslich = practically insoluble; teilweise löslich = partly soluble; mischbar = miscible / sommet = apex (of lung) / somnolence diurne = daytime somnolence (geriatric med. e.g.) / Sonde; sonde = catheter (for delivery or evacuation of fluids); probe (for exploration); lead (pacemaker, ICD, etc.) / mouvement de sonnette = rotation (joints) / signe de la sonnette = (defined) pain or tenderness on palpation or percussion of the vertebra (typically L5-S1; testing for nerve root damage, disk herniation, sciatica; there seems to be no neat English name for this procedure) / Sonntagssportler = "weekend warrior" / Sonographie = ultrasound / Soor = thrush; candidiasis (usually by Candida albicans) / Soorpilz = Candida albicans / SOP = standardised operating procedure (equipment e.g.; also seen as "operative procedure") / soroche (South American Spanish) = mountain sickness; altitude sickness / SOT = Society of Toxicology (USA, based Reston VA) / souche = cell line (syn. lignée cellulaire); strain (bacteria) / bronche souche = primary bronchus / cellule souche = elementary cell, embryonic cell / soudure = fusion (bones e.g.) / souffle = murmur (card.) / souffrance fétale aiguë = acute foetal distress / mécanisme de soupape = check valve mechanism (rmed.) / souplesse = elasticity (skin) / sourcil cotyloïdien = acetabular lip, acetabular labrum; sourcil / sourcilier = (of, pertaining to) eyebrow; superciliary / souris articulaire = joint mouse; arthrolith; arthrocyte / sous- (prefix) = (usually) sub-; infra- / être sous (un médicament) = to be on (a drug) / sous contrôle de vue = under direct vision (surg.) / sous-épineux = infraspinatus (muscle) / sous-clavière = subclavian / sous-jacent = underlying / SP = sclérose en paques, see MS / SPA = spondylarthrite ankylosante = ankylosing spondylitis / spaakbeen = radial bone; radius / Spaanse vlieg = Spanish fly; Lytta vesicatoria / spalken = splint (bone fracture) / spanning = tension (blood gases, see P) sparadrap = sticking plaster; Bandaid® / spastisch colon = spastic colon (prefer: irritable bowel syndrome) / spatader = varicose vein; see notes under Varix / SPC = summary of product characteristics (EU: Directive 65/65/EEC) (pharm.) / SPCA serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (blood coagulation) / SPE = (nerf) sciatique poplite externe = common peroneal nerve / spécialité = proprietary drug; branded drug / Speckhautgerinnsel = "chicken fat clot" (Speckhaut- und Cruorgerinnsel together equate to Leichengerinnsel), see blood clot / speeksel = saliva / speekselverlies = drooling; dribbling / Speiche see spaakbeen / Speichel = saliva / Speicheldrüse = salivary gland / Speicherelektrogram part of an ICD: "stored electrogram analysis"; "ICDs with en electrogram storage capability" / Speicherfolie = imaging plate; image plate (computed radiography) / Speicherkrankheit = storage disease; (obsol.) thesaurismosis / Speicherung = localisation (of radionuclide in body, medical imaging) / Speisebrei = chyme / Speiseröhre = oesophagus / spenden = give (blood); donate (organ) / Spender = donor (organ, blood) / Sperrvene see Drosselvene 2.  Speziesbestimmung = speciation; species determination (microbiol.) / SPF = specific pathogen-free (animal assays) / sphacèle see escarre (NB sphacelus in English is now obs.) / SPID = syndrome polyalgique idiopathigue diffus = fibromyalgia / Spiegel = 1. level (e.g. Bleiblutspiegel = blood lead level); 2. speculum (NB as a suffix, usually = "-scope") / spiegelnde reflectie = specular reflection ("specularly reflecting surfaces"); mirror-type reflection (laser surgery) / spiegeling = visualisation; inspection (via an endoscope e.g.) / -spiegelung = (in composite words) -oscopy / spierskeletsystem = musculoskeletal system / spijsverteringskanaal = digestive tract; gastrointestinal tract; GI tract; tractus gastro-intestinalis / spike, spike discharge (EEG): "... spikes firing singly or in short bursts.. rarely more than 1 mv in amplitude" / Spinaliom = squamous cell carcinoma; prickel cell carcinoma; carcinoma spinocellulare / Spindelfaser = spindle fibre / Spindelgift = spindle poison / Spindelzelle = spindle cell; fusiform cell / Spinnenmal see vascular spider / Spinnwebenhaut; Spinnengewebshaut; Spinnwebshaut = arachnoid mater; arachnoid; arachnoidea, see also Hirnhaut / spinnenwebvlies see Spinnenwebenhaut / spiraalbreuk = spiral fracture / "spiraaltje" = coil (IUD) / Spirographie = spirometry; the instrument is a spirometer and the reading is a spirogram (rmed.) / spit = lumbago; joint stiffness / spitsvoet see Spitzfuß / SpitzbogenbuckelSpitzbuckel = gibbus (spine) / Spitze = apex (of lung) (anat.) / Spitzfuß = steppage gait; foot drop; talipes equinus / Spitzfußschiene, see attelle équin / spleetlamp = slit lamp (operating theatre) / splitsing = hydrolysis (proteins) / SPM = syndrome prémenstruel, see PMS / SpO2 = peripheral oxygen saturation (blood gases, normal = 94-99%) / spoelworm = roundworm; nematode worm; ascaris (lubricoides); eelworm; maw worm / Sporentierchen = sporozoon; (plur.) sporozooa / Sporn = (bony) spur (calcaneal spur e.g.) / sporthart = athlete's heart; cardiomegaly / sportif du dimanche see Sonntagssportler / spp = species (plural, in e.g. medical notes) / sprain and strain: tend to be used interchangeably but a sprain is damage to a ligament and a strain is damage to a muscle or tendon (source: NHS leaflet) / Spreizfuß = splay foot / Sprengmittel = disintegrant (pharm.)springworm = pinworm; seatworm (Enterobius vermicularis) / sprongbeen see Sprungbein / spronggewricht = ankle joint / Sproßpilz = yeast fungus; budding fungus; blastomyces / Sprühstoß = puff (inhaler) / Sprungbein = ankle bone; talus / Sprunggelenk = ankle joint / spruw see Soor / Spulwurm see spoelworm / Spülflüssigkeit = washing, see lavage / Spülprobe = lavage sample, see lavage / spumeux = frothy (sputum e.g.) / squames = scales; crusts; scaly patches; squamae (derm.) / squelletique = skeletal / squirrhe = scirrous carcinoma / SRAS = syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère, see SARSSRBC = sheep erythrocytes / SRE = système réticulo-endothélial = reticuloendothelial system (RES) / SRIF = somatotropin release inhibiting factor / SRS = slow-reacting substances (in sputum e.g.) / SSCP = substernal chest pain / SSDV = Swiss Society of Dermatology and Venereology / SSM = Service de Santé Mentale (B) / SSP = soins de santé primaire = primary health care / SSPE = subacute sclerosing panencephalitis / SSRI = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (type of antidepressant) / SST = santé et sécurité au travail = OSH / SSV = short saphenous vein; small saphenous vein / SSW = Schwangeschaftswoche = week of gestation; week of gestational age; week of pregnancy / ST = S-T (e.g. ST-Senkung = S-T junction depression) (card.) / staafje see Stäbchen / staafkernig = band-form (granulocytes) / staafvormig see stäbchenförmig / staar see Star / grijze staar see grauer Star, under Star / groene staar see grüner Star, under Star / zwarte staar = black cataract; senile nuclear sclerotic cataract / staartbeen see Steißbein / Staatstoezicht op de Volksgezondheid = Public Health Service of the Netherlands / Stäbchen = bacillus; rod (eye) / Stäbchenempfindlichkeit = rod sensitivity (vision) / stäbchenförmig = rod-shaped; bacilliform (bacterium) / stabiele zijligging = recovery position (first aid) / stabilographie = stabilography (test of balance, nervous system) / en régime stable = steady-state (test, measurement) / STac = Strömungswiderstandsanstiegskapazität = ? increased airway capacity (rmed.) / Stachelwarze = common wart; verruca vulgaris / Stachelzelle = prickle cell / stage = internship (postgraduate training for medical specialism) / stammesgeschichtliche Entwicklung = developmental history (of individual, race) / Stammhirn = brain stem; truncus encephalicus / Stammzelle = stem cell / Standardfilm = standard radiograph; reference radiograph; standard film / Ständiger Ausschuß der Ärtzte der EWG = Standing Committee of Doctors of the EEC (EU: based Denmark) / Stannose = stannosis (rmed.) / stansbiopsie; Stanzbiopsie = punch biopsy; core biopsy; core needle biopsy; CNB / Stanzzylinder = core (the actual specimen) / Star = cataract: grauer Star; Altersstar = (senile) cataract (commonest type); grüner Star = glaucoma (ophthal.) / stase lymphatique = lymphostasis; stoppage of lymph flow / stationär = in-patient (person or treatment; i.e. in hospital, hospitalised, as opposed to out-patient) / statut nutritionnel = nutritional status: "The condition of the body resulting from the intake, absorption and utilization of food and from factors of pathological significance" (WHO) / Staub = dust: atembarer Staub = inhalable dust; Feinstaub = commonly used to mean lungengängiger Staub = respirable dust "respirable dust is that portion of total inhalable dust which is retained in the lungs"; retinierter Staub = retained dust (rmed.) / Staubbekämpfung = dust control (OSH) / Staubbelastung = dust exposure (of a person); dust level (of a workplace or environment) / Staublunge = pneumoconiosis (rmed.) / Staubsumme; Staubsummenwert = cumulative dust exposure / Stauniere = congested kidney / Stauungslunge = congested lung / STAV = Steilanstiegvolumen = ? gradient volume (rmed.);  STaV = Strömungswiderstandsanstiegsvolumen = ? increased airway resistance (rmed.) / STD = sexually transmitted diseases; (obsol.) venereal diseases / Stechfliegen; steekmuggen = biting flies / steeldraai = volvulus / steenpuist = boil; furuncle / steenvergruizing see Steinzertrümmerung / steenvrucht = lithopaedion; calcified foetus / Steg = bar (dent.) / stehende Hautfalten = decreased skin turgor (when pinched, inelastic skin remains "tented") / Steigebügel = stapes (auditory ossicle / Steinkrankheit = lithiasis / "Steinleiden" = "kidney stones"; "gallstones", see Steinkrankheit / Steinzertrümmerung = lithotripsy / Steißbein = coccyx; coccygeal bone; tail bone; os coccygis / STEL = short-term exposure limits (tox.) (UK) / Stellknorpel = arytenoid cartilage / stemband see Stimmband / stemgeving = phonation / STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (cardiol.) / sténose = narrowing; stenosis (airway, blood vessel) / hochgradige Stenose; sténose serrée = tight stenosis (card.) / Steppergang = steppage gait / Sterbehilfe (in sense of Hilfe zum Sterben as opposed to Hilfe im Sterben) = euthanasia; assisted suicide, see notes under PAS / Sterberate = mortality; death (rate) / stereotaktisch = stereotaxic; stereotactic (brain surg.) / stérilet see IUD / sternförmige Ausziehungen = spiculated nodules (rad./rmed.) / Sternzelle = (gen.) stellate cell; (specif.) 1. astrocyte; granule cell (brain, CNS); 2. Kupffer's cell (liver) / steunweefsel = supporting tissue / STG = Strömungsgeräusch = (vascular) bruit / STH = somatotropin hormone / STI = 1. sexually transmitted infection; 2. structured treatment interruption (AIDS: on-off drugs regimen) / Stichkanal = puncture channel; needle track; needle tract (endoscopy) / "stiction" = static friction (describes e.g. stop-start progress of plunger through barrel of a syringe) / Stiel = pedicle (skin graft, polyp e.g.) / stijgbeugel see Steigebügel / stijgend = afferent (nerves, lymph vessels) / Stilleinlage = breast pad; nursing pad (gyn./obstet.) / stilligouttes = medicinal dropper / Stimmband = true vocal cord; plica vocalis / falsche Stimmlippe = false vocal cord; plica vestibularis / wahre Stimmlippe see Stimmband / Stimmritze = rima glottidis; fissure of glottis / stimulateur cardiaque = pacemaker, see Schrittmacher) / stimulation de la ventilation par le CO2 = CO2 stimulated breathing / stinkend = foul; foul-smelling (sputum e.g.) / stitch see suture / STL = surface tension-lowering, sometimes used in other languages to mean simply "surfactant" (rmed.) / Stober aerosol spectrometer / stoelgang = bowel habit / stoflongen see Staublunge / Stoffwechselschlacken; stofwisselingsafvalstoffe = metabolic waste(s) / stoffwisselingsziekten = inborn errors of metabolism / stomathérapeute = ostomy therapist / stomathérapie = stomatherapy / stomie = ostomy / Störung = impairment; defect; disorder; abnormality / straalschimmelziekte = actinomycosis / strabisme; Strabismus = squint; strabismus / strabisme convergent = cross-eye (one eye turns inward) / strabisme divergent = wall-eye (one eye turns outward; NB for other meaning of wall-eye in English see vairon); lazy eye (one eye focuses straight and the other eye wanders) (ophth.) / Straffung = lifting (cosmetic surgery) / Strahlenkörper = refracting media (eye) / Strahlenpilz = actinomycete; ray fungus / strahlenundurchlässig = radiopaque / strahlige Ausläufer see sternförmige Ausziehungen / Strahlungspaß = radiation exposure logbook, record book; X-ray medical card / strain see under stress / stralengang = path of beam (laser surgery) / stralingskunde = radiology / stralingsziekte = radiation sickness / Strang = tract; trunk; fasciculus; bundle; strand (nerves) / strangförmig (lung opacities) = linear; "lines" (rad.) / ST Streckensenkung = depression of the ST segment (ECG) / Streckhilfe = extension aid (prostheses) / Streckseite = extensor side (of limb) / Streifen = lines, streaks (rad., lung opacities) / streifig = linear (rad., lung opacities) / streptozotocin / stress; strain : (distinction taken from letter to BMJ): "These terms are commonly used with no clear understanding of their respective meanings. Indeed, they are often used interchangeably, or in common parlance lumped together as in the phrase "stresses and strains" and virtually given the same meaning. The basic meanings of stress and strain are most clearly defined in terms of mechanics where stress is the force applied and strain is the resulting change, whence by analogy these meanings may be extended to physiology, psychology and clinical medicine. Thus disagreeable events or conditions in a man's occupational or domestic life are stresses, and the resulting palpitations, hypertension, anorexia or duodenal ulcer are strains. The fact that in general the laity, apart from engineers, may fail to distinguish these terms is no ground for the medical profession to use a similarly confused terminology. That there is a realization of the present confused state is evidenced by a discussion that took place at the CIBA Symposium on the Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Psychological Interface held at Stratford-upon-Avon in December 1987. I quote "V. Hrubes: 'In the past there has been much misunderstanding of the word "stress", which is commonly used to describe both the cause and the syndrome of reactions - that is, the response. Lately the terms "stressor" has been employed for the cause.' M. Lader: 'We have to accept that "stress" is now used mainly to describe the response. We should avoid using it for the external stimulus as well - the "stressor". However, we assume that any powerful stimulation must be a "stress", and that any "stress" response must be the result of such stimulation. We could with advantage avoid the term entirely and speak of stimulus and response.' I regard as unfortunate any attempt to introduce a new word (stressor) and misuse an old one (stress) when the entirely satisfactory words stress and strain already exist." / Streuung = profusion (number of small rounded opacities per unit area of lung) (rmed.) / Stridor = stridor (rmed.) / strié = striated (muscle) / Stripperasthma = maple bark stripper's lung / Stripping = tape stripping (allergies) / Strömungsgeräusch = bruit (card.) / Strömungswiderstand des Atemtraktes = airway resistance; flow resistance (rmed.) / "strontje" = stye; hordeolum / strooipoeder = dusting powder (pharm.) / strotklepje = epiglottis / strottenhoofd = larynx / STS = sequence-tagged site (genetics) / STT = serial thrombin time (blood) / Stubenfliege = house fly; musca domestica / Stufentherapie = stepped-care therapy / Stuhlgang see stoelgang / stuifmeel = pollen / stuitbeen see Steißbein / stuitgeboorte = breech birth / stupéfiant = narcotic; drug / Stütz- und Bewegungsapparat = musculoskeletal system / Stützgewebe see steunweefsel / stuwingslongen see Stauungslunge / Stx = Shiga toxins / SUA = serum uric acid / subérose = suberosis (allergic alveolitis caused by mouldy cork dust) / perte de substance = defect (skin grafting.) / suc gastrique = gastric juice(s) / succès = (positive) response (to a drug or treatment) / -sucht (as suffix often) = dependency; addiction / sudoral; sudorifère; sudoripare = sweat (adj.) / SUFE = slipped upper femoral epiphysis (orth.) / suicide médicalement assisté, see PAS / suikerziekte = diabetes mellitus (DM) / suinter = ooze / suites de couches = postpartum; postpartum period; puerperium; "lying-in" (gyn./obst.) / suites opératoires = postoperative management / Suizidbeihilfe: often used interchangeably with Sterbehilfe, but where a distinction is made, e.g. in Swiss use, it means assistance given to persons who are not terminally ill but may be mentally ill, or for another reason, see notes under PAS) / sulfamide = sulphonamide; sulpha drug / sulfamide hypoglycémique = sulphonylurea; oral hypoglacaemic agent (diabetes) / sulzige Verdickung see teigig / Sumpffieber = swamp fever; marsh fever; malaria / suralimentation = overeating / surcharge = overload (of cells) / surfactant pulmonaire = lung surfactant; pulmonary surfactant / surinfection = superinfection / surjet = running suture (buried, i.e. no stitches visible on skin surface) / surmenage (NL) = overload (phyical or mental) / surrénale = adrenal cortex / étude de surveillance = surveillance study (cancer) / sus- (prefix) = (usually) supra- / Sushrute (FR) = Susruta (Indian surgeon 6-7th century BC) / sustained ventricular tachycardia / suture = suture; stitch (hand-sewn); staple; stapling (using a gun) / suture mécanique = stapling (technique; the actual stitch is an "agrafe") / Sv = Sievert (unit, rad.) / SV = 1. simian virus; 2. stroke volume (card.) / SvO2 = venous oxygen saturation (iblood gases/i) / s-vormige darm = sigmoid / SWS = slow wave sleep / SWV = Swiss Vancouver (mice) (animal assays) / Sx = signs and symptoms / sympathicomimétique = sympathomimetic; (less commonly) sympathicomimetic / sympathicus = sympathetic nervous system / symptôme = symptom; sign; manifestation (in strict English usage a "symptom" is reported by the patient whilst a "sign" is observed by the physician) / syndactylie = syndactyly, webbed fingers or toes / syndrome ventilatoire obstructif = obstructive ventilatory defect; obstructive ventilatory impairment (rmed.) / synovie = synovial fluid / Sz = seizure


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