Glossary of Medical Terms, Abbreviations & Symbols
Dutch-English, French-English, German-English


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MA = maladie d'Alzheimer, see AD / MAA = marketing authorisation application (pharm.) / maagbodem = gastric fundus; fundus ventricularis / maagdarmkanaal = gastrointestinal tract; GI tract; digestive tract; tractus gastro-intestinalis / maagdenvlies = hymen (gyn.) / maagportier see Magenpförtner / maagsap see Magensaft / maagmond = cardia (stomach) / maagspoelen see Magenspülung / mab = monoclonal antibody / MAC = maximaal aanvaarde concentratie; maximum allowable concentration (tox.) / macrobiopsie; Makrobiopsie = large-core biopsy (often but not exclusively of breast) / macroélément = macroelement; major mineral (found in large quantities in the body, contrast: trace element) / Madenfraß = myiasis / Madenwurm = pinworm; seatworm (Enterobius vermicularis) / Magenausheberung = evacuation of stomach (usually followed by gastric lavage) / Magenband = gastric banding; vertical banded gastroplasty (obesity) / Magendarmkatarrh = gastroenteritis / Magengrübchen = gastric pits / Magenkrampf = heartburn; cardialgia / Magenpförtner = pylorus; pyloric opening of stomach / Magensaft = gastric juice(s) / Magenspülung = gastric lavage (preferred to irrigation, washing) / Magenverstimmung = indigestion / Magnetfeldresonanztomogaphie, see MRI / Mahlzahn = molar / mailles = meshes (network of blood vessels) / MAK = maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration (OSH) (D; since 1980) = (suggest) maximum workplace concentration (but preferably leave as MAK in a specifically German context. Definition: "Der MAK-Wert ist die höchstzulässige Konzentration eines Arbeitsstoffes als Gas, Dampf oder Schwebstoff in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz, die nach dem gegenwärtigen Stand der Kenntnis auch bei wiederholter und langfristiger, in der Regel täglich 8-stündiger Exposition, jedoch bei Einhaltung einer durchschnittlichen Wochenarbeitszeit von 40 Stunden (in Vierschichtbetrieben 42 Stunden je Woche im Durchschnitt von vier aufeinanderfolgenden Wochen) im allgemeinen die Gesundheit der Beschäftigten nicht beeinträchtigt und diese nicht unangemessen belästigt. In der Regel wird der MAK-Wert als Durchschnittswert über Zeiträume bis zu einem Arbeitstag oder einer Arbeitsschicht integriert. Bei der Aufstellung von MAK-Werten sind in erster Linie die Wirkungscharakteristika der Stoffe zu berücksichtigen, daneben aber auch - soweit möglich - praktische Gegebenheiten der Arbeitsprozesse bzw. der durch diese bestimmten Expositionsmuster. Maßgeblich sind dabei wissenschaftlich fundierte Kriterien des Gesundheitsschutzes, nicht die technischen und wirtschaftlichen Möglichkeiten der Realisation in der Praxis." / Makrophagentransport = macrophage transport / mal défini = ill-defined (rad./rmed.) / malariagefährdet = malarious (region) / malin = malignant / Malzarbeiterlunge = malt worker's lung / Mammaplastik = mammoplasty / Mammareduktionsplastik = reduction mammoplasty / biopsie par mammotome®; Mammotome®-biopsie = Mammotome® biopsy (a vacuum-assisted breast biopsy technique) / manche = handle (laryngoscope e.g.) / opblaasbare manchet = inflatable cuff (sphygmomanometer) / perivasculaire manchetvorming = perivascular cuffing (leukocytes collected around a blood vessel) / manducateur see masticateur / manganisme = manganese poisoning; manganism / Mangelgeburtlichkeit = small-for-dates; small for gestational age (obstet.) / perivaskuläre Manschettenbildung see perivasculaire manchetvorming / puits mantelé = coated pit / vésicule mantelée = coated vesicle (cell biol.) / Mantelzelle = satellite cell / Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, see DSM / MAO = monoamine oxidase / MAOI = monoamine oxidase inhibitor / MAP = mean arterial pressure / MAPC = multipotent adult progenitor cell / MAR = mixed antiglobulin reaction (fertility test) / Mariendistel = milk thistle (bot.) / Marihuana (D), see cannabis / épreuve des marionnettes = rapid alternating movements test (neur.) / marisque = skin tag, achrochordon (derm.) / verlängertes Mark see medulla oblongata / Markhöhle = medullary cavity / marklos = non-myelinated; unmyelinated (nerve fibre) / Markscheide = myelin sheath / Markschwamm = medullary carcinoma; carcinoma medullare / Marmorknochenkrankheit = marble bones; osteopetrosis / marqueur biologique = biomarker; molecular marker / marqueur de contact = viral marker (e.g. hepatitis) / carence martiale = iron deficiency / Masern = measles; morbilli / Maskengesicht = masklike facies (Parkinsonism e.g.) / masque de loup see aile de papillon / masse osseuse = bone mineral density / masse sanguine = circulating blood; total mass of circulating blood / Massenfaser = mass fibre (asbestos) / massif facial osseux = the facial bones; facial skeleton; splanchnocranium; viscerocranium / Mastdarm = rectum / masticateur = masticatory (apparatus, muscles, system) / MAT = minimum access therapy (= keyhole surgery) / matériovigilance = medical devices vigilance system / matité = dullness (of sound, on percussion) / matrice = matrix (bone) / matteren = to dull (reflective surface of surgical instrument e.g.) / mattglasartig see milchglasartig / Maulbeerkeim = morula / Maurerkrätze = allergic contact dermatitis (from cement e.g.) / maximale Atemkapazität = maximum breathing capacity, see MBC / maximale willkürliche Ventilation = maximum voluntary ventilation, see MBC / May-Grünwald Giemsa (microbiol.: stain) / MB = métabolism basal see BM 1. / mazelen see Masern / MBC = 1. maximum breathing capacity (greatest volume of gas which can be breathed per minute by voluntary effort; synonym: "maximum voluntary ventilation" (MVV)) (rmed.); 2. minimum bactericidal concentration / MBD = minimal brain dysfunction, synonyms AD, ADD, ADH 2. / MCADD = medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency / MCF = macrophagic chemotactic factor / MCH = mean corpuscular haemoglobin (measured in pg) / MCHC = mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (measured as % or g/ml) / MCJ = maladie Creutzfeldt-Jakob see CJD / MCP = metacarpophalangeal (joints) / MCT = medium-chain triglyceride / MCTD = mixed connective tissue diseases / MCUG = micturating cystourethroogram (urinary tract infections) / MCV = 1. maximum conduction velocity (nerves); 2. mean corpuscular volume (blood, measured in cubic micrometers) / MD = 1. minute distance: the 12-MD = the 12-minute walking distance (rmed.); 2. mucosal disease (vet.) / MDCK = Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell (vaccines) / MDI = metered-dose inhaler (asthma nebuliser e.g.) / MDSC = 1. muscle-derived stem cell; 2. myeloid-derived suppressor cell (oncology) / ME = myalgic encephalomyelitis; myalgische encefalomyopathie, synonyms: chronic fatigue syndrome; "Yuppie 'flu" / MEC = matrice extracellulaire, see ECM / MedDRA = Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (new global standard medical terminology) / médecin-conseil = consulting physician (advises insurance company e.g.) / médecin consultant = consultant (specialist to whom general practitioner refers patients) / médecine légale = forensic and legal medicine / médecin légiste = specialist in forensic and legal medicine / médecin référent = gatekeeper: (usually primary care) physician who refers patients on to a specialist and generally coordinates their care (USA) / médecin de triage = triage physician (emergency situations) / médecin traitant = (usually) GP; (in hospital context) consultant; attending physician / médecin de ville = (suggest) "non-hospital practitioner" (may be a GP or specialist with his own e.g. X-ray facilities) / médecine de ville = non-hospital medicine: in effect private practice – the patient uses the doctor of his choice and the doctor is paid on a fee-for-service basis / médecine factuelle = EBM q.v. / médecine générale = general practice / médecine de groupe = group practice / médecines douces = alternative medicine; alternative therapies / medicamenteus; médicamenteux; medikamentös = (effect achieved) by drugs; medication-induced, drug-induced  / médicaments de confort = convenience drugs / médicaments à consommer en priorité = preferred drugs (listed by health care funds for reimbursement) / médico-légal = forensic / Medieneinheiten, Medienschienen = multi-channel outlets (radio, TV, call button, gas supplies, etc. in a hospital room) / artère médiane = median artery / médius = middle finger / Medizinprodukt = medical device (not product) / selbstständiges Medizinprodukt = stand-alone medical device / Medizinproduktgesetz = Medical Devices Act (D) / medulla oblongata  synonyms: spinal bulb; myelencephalon (brain) / médullosurrénale = adrenal medulla / médullosurrénalome = pheochromocytoma / "mee-eter" = "blackhead"; comedo (derm.) / Mees's stripes = white bands on finger nails as a result of arsenic poisoning / MEF; MEFR = maximaler exspiratorischer Fluß; maximale exspiratorische Flußrate = maximum expiratory flow (rate), see FEF (rmed.) / MEFV = maximum expiratory flow volume (curve) (rmed.) / mégabassinet = hydronephrosis / Megalerythema see fifth disease / mehrfach resistent = multiresistant (microbiology) / Mehrfachsimpfstoff = combination vaccine; combined vaccine / Mehrlingsgeburt = multiple birth / motorische Mehrpulszahl; thermische Mehrpulszahl see under extrapulsations cardiaques / melaatsheid = leprosy / mélanostimuline = melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) / meldepflichtig = notifiable (diseases); reportable (accidents) / "de melk schiet erin" see Einschießung / melkzuiker = lactose / melkzuur = lactic acid / Mengenelement see macroélément / menginfectie = mixed infection; polyinfection / menschliche Zuwendung = human care; compassion; TLC / MEOS = microsmal ethanol oxidising system (alcoholism) / MER = Muskeleigenreflex (syn. Muskeldehnungsreflex) = muscular reflex / mercedessternartig = tree in bud (pattern of lung opacitites) (rad./rmed.) / verlengde merg see medulla oblongata / mergschede see Markscheide / Merkurialismus = mercury poisoning; mercurialism / mescaline = hallucinogenic alkaloid in the peyote cactus, named after Mascalero (Apache) tribe in Mexico & S.W. USA / mésencéphale = mesencephalon; midbrain / mésenchymateux = mesenchymal / Meskalin see mescaline / Mesotheliom = mesothelioma, (plural mesotheliomas) / MET = metabolic equivalent (unit of energy expenditure) / métacarpo-phalangien = metacarpophalangeal (fingers, A1) / Metallolive = metal olive (e.g. "an olive-tipped bougie") / métencéphale = metencephalon; afterbrain / metaphase: cell division is arrested at metaphase / métencéphale = metencephalon; afterbrain / météorisme = flatulence, "wind" / MetHb = methaemoglobin / maladie meutrière = killer disease; "big killer" / tissus meurtris = devitalized tissue / MFIU = mort foetale in utero see IUFD / MFO = mixed function oxidase / MFSR = maximum flow static recoil relationship (rmed.) / MGC = mesure du glucose en continu see CGMs / MHC = major histocompatibility complex (proteins) / MHRA = Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (UK; formerly the Medicines Control Agency / MHZ = medische hulp bij zelfdoding see PAS / MI = myocardial infarction / MIBT = multiple individual breath test (rmed.) / MIC = minimal inhibitory concentration (tox.) / MICI = maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin, see IBD / micromanipulator (laser surg.) / mictiographie see débitmétrie mictionnelle / miction; Miktion = urination; micturition / MID = median infective dose / MIDCAB = minimally invasive direct-access coronary artery bypass / middenhandsbeentje see Mittelhandknochen / middenhersenen see mesencephalon / middenoor = tympanic cavity; middle ear / middenoorontsteking = middle ear infection; otitis media / middenpijn see Mittelschmerz / middenrif = diaphragm (anat.) / middenrifbreuk = hiatus hernia; hiatal hernia (either the commoner type I = sliding hiatal hernia or type II = paraoesophageal hernia) / middenvoetsbeentje see Mittelfußknochen / MIF = macrophage inhibiting factor / MIFV = maximum inspiratory flow volume (curve) (rmed.) / MIGET = multiple inert gas elimination technique (ventilation-perfusion relationships) (rmed.) / mijnworm = hookworm / mijtstof = house mite dust / Mikrohämatokritkapillare = microhaematocrit capillary tube / Mikrospurenbestimmung = micro-detection / Milchgang = milk duct; lactiferous duct (gyn.) / milchglasartig; milchglasähnlich = ground-glass (opacity, obscuration) (rad./rmed.) / Milchsack = lactiferous sinus; ampulla (gyn.) / Milchsäurezyklus = lactic acid cycle / Milchschorf = milk crust (newborns) / Milchzahn = milk tooth; deciduous tooth / milia (pl. of milium) = (non-specific) rash (derm.) / milieu = medium; environment; milieu / en milieu = (shorthand for) en milieu stérile = under sterile conditions / miltvergroting = splenomegaly / miltvuur; Milzbrand = anthrax (zoonitic disease) / Minamata (mercury poisoning episodes, 1950s in Japan; NB often misspelled as Minimata) / Minderperfusion = underperfusion / Minderwuchs = dwarfism / Mineralhaushalt = mineral metabolism / mini-stroke = TIA (pop.) / Minussymptomatik = negative symptoms (in schizophrenia, e.g. emotional withdrawal, alogia, contrast Plussymptomatik) / MIS = minimally invasive surgery, see also MAT / Mischungsindex = mixing index (rmed.) / mise à plat = debridement; tissue excision (wound care) / mise en évidence = detection; identification; finding (substance in blood e.g.) / miskraam = spontaneous abortion; miscarriage (gyn.)/ Mißbildung = malformation / misselijkheid = nausea / misvorming = malformation / mitarbeiterunabhängig = subject cooperation-independent (in medical testing e.g.) / Mitbeteiligung = involvement (of lymph nodes e.g.) / mitella = triangular bandage; arm sling; mitella / "Mitesser" see mee-eter / in Mitleidenschaft ziehen = to involve (e.g. "infection also involves the skin.." / mitoses = mitotic cell divisions / mittelblasiges Rasselgeräusch see adventitious breath sounds / mittelexspiratorischer Fluß = mid-expiratory flow, see FEF25-75 / Mittelfell = mediastinum / Mittelfußknochen = metatarsal (bone) / Mittelhandknochen = metacarpal (bone) / Mittelhirn see mesencephalon / Mittellappen = middle lobe (lung) / Mittellinie = midline (anat.) / Mittelschmerz = mittelschmerz; middle pain (gyn.) / MKS = Maul- und Klauenseuche see FMD (vet.) / ml par kg de poids corporel par minute = mL/kg/BW/min / MMF; MMEF; MMEFR = maximum mid-expiratory flow (rate), see FEF25-75, i.e. forced expiratory flow at between 25 and 75% of a forced vital capacity manoeuvre, measured over the middle two quarters of the manoeuvre) (rmed.) / MMR = measles, mumps, rubella (combined, "triple" vaccine) / empan mnésique = memory span / moederkoek = placenta; afterbirth (obst.) / moedervlek see naevus / moelle = medulla (gen.); moelle épineuse = spinal medulla / moelle osseuse = bone marrow / moeraskoorts = swamp fever; marsh fever; malaria / MOET = multiple ovulation embryo transfer (cloning) / moignon = stump (of amputated limb or tooth) / molécule = molecule (chem./phys.); drug; agent (pharm.) / tuméfaction mollasse see teigig / MoM = multiple de la médiane = multiple of the median (screening test results) / MON = mode opératoire normalisé, see SOP / Monatsfluß = menstruation; menstrual period, menses (gyn.) / Mondbein = lunate bone (hand) / Mondkalb = blighted ovum (gyn.) / mond- en klauwzeer see FMD (vet.) / mondziekten, kaak- en aangezichtschirurgie = oral and maxillofacial surgery / Mongolenfalte = prominent epicanthal folds (Down syndrome) / MONICA = Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (WHO project) / Monilia (obsol.) = Candida; (obsol.)Monilia / Monochromasie = monochromatism, see Farbenfehlsichtigkeit / monocouche = single-cell layer / grossesse monofoetale = singleton pregnancy / monogene Erbskrankheiten = single gene diseases (are all hereditary anyway..) / Monokelhämatom = periorbital haematoma; black eye, see also Brillenhämatom / monotop = focal (lesions of CNS in e.g. MS, contrast polytop) / mal des montagnes = mountain sickness; altitude sickness / Montagsdyspnoe = Monday fever (rmed.) / Moosfasern = mossy fibres (cerebellum) / morpion = crab louse; Pthirus pubis / Mörtelniere = putty kidney; mortar kidney; caseous pyonephrosis / mortinaissance = stillbirth / mort-né = stillborn / motilité = motility (sperm e.g.) / Motorpäde see psychomotricien / motorische eindplaatjes = motor end plates (nerves) / force motrice = muscle strength (Oxford scale; MRC scale) / fracture en motte de beurre = torus fracture; buckle fracture / motté = clumped (chromatin); curd-like; crumbly (Candida); in plaques (atherosclerosis) / moustique anophèle = Anopheles mosquito; anopheline mosquito / MPBetreibV = Medizinproduktebetreibverordnung = Operation of Medical Devices Ordinance (D; 1998) / MPD = maximum permissible dose (rad./tox.) / MPE = maximum permissible exposure (lasers) / MPG = Medizinproduktegesetz = Medical Devices Act (D; 1998) / MPLB = maximum permissible lung burden (tox.) / MPN = most probable number (microbiol.) / MPRAD = maladie polykystique rénale autosomique dominante, see ADPKD / MPV = mean platelet volume / MR = magnetic resonance / mr; m/r; MR = modified release (pharm.) / MR Tomographie see MRI / MRA = magnetic resonance angiography, angiogram (card.) / MRC = Medical Research Council (UK); the MRC Questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and pneumoconiosis / MRI = magnetic resonance imaging. Note: MRI, applied to the human body, is essentially the same technique as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), used in the laboratory / MRL = maximum residue level (pesticides) / MRR = maximum relaxation rate (respiratory muscles) /MRSA = methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (hosital infection "superbug") / MRT = Magnetresonanztomographie, see MRI / MS = multiple sclérose; multiple sclerosis; multiple Sklerose / MSAD = multiple scan average dose (med. imaging) / Msares = magensaftresistent = enteric-coated (pharm.) / MSBP = Munchausen's syndrome by proxy (psychiatric illness entailing intentional production of physical symptoms, usually in child by parent; also known as Polle's syndrome or Meadow's syndrome. Polle supposedly the short-lived child of Munchausen) / MSC = mesenchymal stem cell / MSF = macrophage slowing factor / MSH = melanocyten stimulerend hormoon = melanocyte-stimulating hormone / MST = maladie sexuellement transmissible, see STD / MSU = midstream urine; Mittelstrahlurin / MSUD = maple syrup (urine) disease / MT = metatarsal (example: MT1; "first metatarsal") / MTA = 1. medizinisch-technische(r) Assistent(in) = laboratory technician; 2. multifocal atrial tachycardia (card.) / MTB = 1. maximaal toelaatbare blootstelling see MPE; 2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / MTD = maximum tolerable dose; maximum tolerated dose (tox.) / MTRA = Medizinisch-technischer Radiologieassistent(in) = radiographer / mucoviscidose; Mukoviszidose = cystic fibrosis; (obsol.) mucoviscidosis / MUD = matched unrelated donor (transplants) / Mueller-Hinton agar (microbiol.) / zone = silent zone (medical imaging) / muguet = thrush; candidiasis (usually by Candida albicans) / muguet buccal; muguet oral = oral thrush / muguet vulvaire = vaginal thrush; vaginitis / "muisarm" = repetitive strain injury (RSI) / "mule" = person who smuggles narcotics in his or her body cavities / MULIBREY nanism = rare autosomal recessive disorder with dwarfism and associated defects of muscle, liver, brain and eyes / Mullkompresse = gauze pad; gauze swab / multithérapie = combination therapy (pharm.) / unzureichende Mundhygiene = poor oral hygiene / Mundvorhof = vestibule of the mouth, vestibulum oris / muqueuse = (adj.) mucous; (noun) mucosa; mucous membrane / murin = mouse (adj.) / museau de tanche = ectocervix (gyn.) / Muskelbruch = muscle hernia / Muskelhärte = myogelosis / Muskelpfeiler = muscular pillar / Muskelriß = muscle tear / Muskelschleife = muscular slip (bundle of fibres) / mutation ponctuelle = point mutation (genetics) / Mutterkorn = ergot / Mutterkuchen see moederkoek / Muttermal see naevus / Mutterschaftsvorsorge = prenatal care / MV = minute volume; respiratory minute volume (volume of gas expelled from the lungs in one minute; = tidal volume x respiratory rate) (rmed.) / MVP = maladie vasculaire périphérique, see PVD / MVV = maximum voluntary ventilation ("sprint" or "sustained"), see MBC (rmed.) / sidération du myocarde = myocardial stunning / myocarde sidéré = stunned myocardium / Myom; myome = (uterine) fibroid / myorelaxant = muscle relaxant / myorésolutif see myorelaxant / Mytylschool (NL) = Mytyl school (special school for physically handicapped children, named after heroine of "L'Oiseau Bleu" (1908), story by Belgian author Maeterlinck)


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