Glossary of Medical Terms, Abbreviations & Symbols
Dutch-English, French-English, German-English


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LA = lung aspirate (rmed.) / laatkop = cupping glass; ventouse / lab-ferment = chymosin; rennin; (culinary) rennet (NB not to be confused with renin) / Lachgas = 'laughing gas' (nitrous oxide; N2O) / Lachsfleck = salmon patch, see haemangioma / Lacktabletten = lacquered tablets (pharm.) / os lacrymal = lacrimal bone; os lacrimale; os unguis / lacs = surgical tie / mettre sur lacs = to retract; ligate (tissue is encircled or looped with vascular tape, moving it out of the surgeon's way) / LAD = left anterior descending artery (card.) / LAF = lymphocyte activating factor / Lage = presentation; lie (obst.) / lähmend = depressing; depressant (contrast anregend) / LAI = 1. latex agglutination inhibiting (inhibition); 2. leukocyte adherence inhibition / LÄK = Landesärztekammer (D) = Land Medical Council; Medical Council for the Land of .... / lambeau = flap (skin grafting) / lambeau artériel = artery flap / lambeau bilobé = bilobate flap / lambeau cerf-volant = kite flap / lambeau cutané = skin flap / lambeau différé = delayed flap / lambeau de glissement = advancement flap / lambeau en îlot = island flap / lambeau inguinal = groin flap / lambeau pédiculé = pedicled flap / lambeau sensible = sensory flap / lambeau à vascularisation axiale = axial pattern flap / lambeau à vascularisation diffuse = random pattern flap / lame = 1. (often) lamina (anat.); 2. slide (microbiol.); 3. blade (scalpel, retractor) / lame cornée = horny plate (of fingernail, toenail e.g.) / lame malléable = malleable retractor; malleable ribbon retractor (surg.) / lame quadrijumelle = quadrigeminal plate (mesencephalon) / lame vertébrale = lamina of vertebral arch; lamina arcus vertebrae / lamelle = coverslip, coverglass (microbiol.) / lampe à fente = slit lamp / lamsvlies = amnion (gyn.) / landkartenartige Verteilung = geographic pattern (rad./rmed.) / langerekt = elongated (anat.) / eilandjes van Langerhans; ilôts de Langerhans; Langerhans-Inseln = islets of Langerhans (pancreas) / Langhanssche Riesenzellen = giant cells of Langhans (rmed.) / Längsfaser = slip fibre (asbestos) / languette = lingula (lung) / Langzeit-EKG = long-term ECG / Lanzette = lancet (surg.) / LAO = left anterior oblique (view, rad.) / lapjesproef = patch test (allergies) / Lappe = lobe (lung) / Lärmschwerhörigkeit = noise-induced hearing loss / Lärmtaubheit = noise-induced deafness / larver = mask (symptoms) / LAS = lymphadenopathy syndrome (AIDS-related complex; "pre-AIDS") / LASER: verb = to lase; pres. part. = lasing / laser déclenché = "Q switched" laser / laserrook = laser plume  ("debris (from tissue ablation) 'rains out' into the surrounding area, whilst the rest is transported away in the plume") / laservermogensmeter = laserpower meter / laserruimte = laser room / LASIK = laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (eye surgery) / Latenzzeit = latency of evoked responses (EEG) / test au latex par agglutination see LSA / Lauer-Taxe = official drug price list (D) / Laufband = treadmill / lavage = lavage (technique); washing (product): "Such good results from pulmonary and bronchial lavage in asthmatics and others have stimulated interest in its research potential.. Examination of bronchoalveolar washings may eventually serve as a useful adjunct, or even as an alternative, to lung biopsy in the diagnosis of and management of certain types of diffuse pulmonary disease." / lavage bronchopulmonaire = bronchopulmonary lavage / lavement = enema; irrigation; clyster / lawaaidoofheid see Lärmtaubheit / LBA = lavage broncho-alvéolaire see BAL and lavage (rmed.) / LBD = Lewy body dementia (Alzheimer's) / LBK = linker bovenkwab = upper left lobe (lung) / LC = lethal concentration (tox.) / LCA = ligament croisé antérieur = anterior cruciate ligament (knee) / LCIS = lobular carcinoma in situ; lobuläres Carcinoma in situ (breast cancer) / LCM = lymphocytic choriomeningitis (virus) / LCR = liquide céphalorachidien see CSF / LCS = liquide cérébro-spinal see CSF / LD = 1. lactate dehydrogenase; 2. lethal dose (LD50 = median lethal dose (tox.) / LDH = lactate dehydrogenase; lacticodéshydrogenase; Laktatdehydrogenase / LDL = low density lipoprotein / LE = lupus erythrematosus / lead time = (defined) length of time between early diagnosis by screening and clinical diagnosis where no screening is performed / Lebendgeburt = live birth / Lebendimpfstoff = live vaccine / lebensfähig = viable / lebenswichtige Funktionen = vital functions / Leberegel = liver fluke (collective name, parasite) / Leberentzündung = hepatitis / Leberfleck = liver spot; (senile) lentigo, see naevus / Leberstärke = hepatic glycogen / Lebertran = cod liver oil (pharm.) / LED = lupus érythrémateux disséminé; Lupus erythematodes disseminatus, see SLE 1. / Lederhaut = 1. dermis; corium: 2. sclera (eye) / lederhuid see Lederhaut / Leerdarm = jejunum / Leerröntgen = non-contrast X-ray / leeuwengezicht = "lion face"; leontiasis ossea; facies leontina (Paget's disease, leprosy) / lege artis see fsa / Le Gô grid, score (alcoholism) / Leichenbeschauer (D) = physician who certifies death (on basis, initially, of external examination, usually the attending physician) / Leichenflecken = postmortem lividity; livor mortis / Leichengerinnsel = post-mortem clot, post-mortem thrombus, see blood clot / Leichengift = ptomaine (cadaverine, putrescine e.g.) / Leichenschau = autopsy; post-mortem examination (comprising "äußere Leichenschau" = external examination and "innere Leichenschau" = dissection of the corpse / Leichenschein = death certificate (issued by attending physician) / Leichenstarre = rigor mortis / Leiantikörper = (passively acquired) maternal antibodies; maternally derived antibodies / léimyome = leimyoma; (uterine) fibroid / Leistenband = inguinal ligament / Leistenbruch = inguinal hernia; "rupture" / Leistenregion = groin; inguinal region / Leistungsabnahme= degradation of performance; imparird performance; relative incapacity (erg.) / Leistungseinbuße = loss, impairment (lung function) / Leistungsminderung = (relative) incapacity (handicapped) / leitfähiges Schuhwerk = conductive footwear (discharges static electricity) (OSH) / Leitfähigkeit der Atemwege = airway conductance (rmed.) / Leitungsbahn = neurone; neuron / LEM = lésions extramédullaires = extramedullary lesions; EMD / LEMP = leucoencephalopathie multifocale progressive, see PML / lendenschot = lumbago; joint stiffness / lénitif = demulcent; (rare) lenitive / lentille = (contact) lens (opth.) / lepelvormige nagels = spoon nails / lest végétal = dietary fibre; roughage / leucémie lymphoïde chronique, see CLL / leucémie à tricholeucocytes = hairy cell leukaemia / leucoencéphalopathie multifocale progressive = progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy / leucome = leukoma (see also taie) / leucose; Leukose = leukaemia / biologisches Leukozytenverhalten = leukocyte behaviour / levensvatbaar = viable / levertraan see Lebertran / levervlek see Leberfleck / lèvre blanche = white roll (mouth) / lèvre rouge = vermilion (mouth) / grandes lèvres = labia majora (gyn.) / petites lèvres = labia minora (gyn.) / chromosome artificiel de levure, see YAC / LH = luteiniserend hormoon; luteinising hormone (gyn.) / (médecin exerçant à) titre libéral = (doctor working in) private practice / libérine= releasing factor (e.g. corticolibérine = corticotropin-releasing factor); liberin (cf. inhibine) / LIC = liver iron concentration / lichen plan = lichen planus (derm.) / Lichtdermatose see PLE / lichte Weite = lumen (blood vessels e.g. or instruments) / Lichtkrankheit see PLE / Lichtscheu = photophobia / lichtvlek = light spot (laser surgery) / Liegezeit see PMI 2. / liesbreuk see Leistenbruch / liesstreek = groin; inguinal region / LIF = left iliac fossa / ligature appuyée = suture ligation / ligging see Lage / lignage = lineage (cells) / lignée cellulaire = cell line / lijkstijfheid see Leichenstarre / lijkvlekken see Leichenflecken / likdoorn = corn; clavus; heloma (foot) / weke likdoorn = soft corn; heloma molle / limaçon osseux = cochlea (ear) / LIMA = left internal mammary artery / limbe = limbus; border, margin; arch; ring (depending on body part) / limbisches System = limbic system / limité par = bounded by (anat.) / Linderung = relief (pain) / linguette = sublingual tablet (pharm.) / linienfremd = aberrant (gene expression) / linkerharthelf = the left heart / refraktiver Linsenaustausch = clear lens extraction (ophthal.) / Linsenkern = lentiform nucleus; lenticular nucleus (brain) / lintworm = tapeworm / lipémie = hyperlipidaemia; elevated blood lipid level / Lipidsenker see hypolipémiant / lipome = lipoma / lipoméries = areas of body fat; "saddlebags"; "love handles" (esp. on thighs) / Lippenbremse see PLB / Lippen-Kiefer-Gaumenspalte = cheilognathopalatoschisis; cleft lip, jaw and palate / lippenrood; Lippenrot see lèvre rouge) / Lippenspalte = cleft lip; harelip, cheiloschisis / Liquorraum = cisterna (esp. one of enlarged subarachnoid spaces containing CSF) / LIS = less invasive surgery / lis see lus / liseré noirâtre (des gencives) = "lead line" (at edge of gums, symptomatic of lead poisoning) / lissage = lifting (cosmetic. surg.) / musculature lisse = smooth muscle / liste limitative = schedule of approved drugs (health care costs) / lit de régulation ville = ?bed for patients referred by non-hospital doctors (to e.g. regional cancer centre) / lithiaise biliaire = (formation of) gallstones; biliary calculi / litteken = scar; cicatrix / LK = Lymphknoten = lymph nodes / LMP = last menstrual period (gyn.) / LMR = limite maximale de résidus see MRL / Lo = lowest (e.g. LDLo = lowest published lethal dose) / LOAEL = lowest observed adverse effect level (tox.) / lob = lobe (thyroid) / LOC = loss of consciousness / LOCF = last observation carried forward / Lochgeschwür = malum perforans pedis; diabetic ulcer (feet & legs, in diabetes mellitus) / Lochtuch = fenestrated drape (surg.) / locus: "at the HRPT locus" / LOEL = lowest observed effect level (tox.) / loge = 1. recess (in bone e.g., occupied by a muscle); 2. pocket (breast reconstruction implants) / loge carotidienne = carotid space (neck) / loge rénale = renal bed / loger = lodge (anat.): "it (vertebral groove) lodges the deep back muscles.." / logette = (intraretinal cystic) cavity, as in cf. CMO / logette des osselets = epitympanic recess; attic (ear) / logopédie = speech therapy; logopaedics / LOH = loss of heterozygosity (cancer) / LOI = loss of imprinting (‘LOI markers’, genetics) / Lokalisation = site (of lesions) / lombalisation = lumbarization / lombes = lumbus; lumbar region; loins / longblaasjes = alveoli / longbloeding see Lungenblutung / longemfyseem = emphysema (rmed.) / longenpest = pleuropneumonia / longfunctie-onderzoek = lung function test (testing); pulmonary function test (testing); test of lung function; test of pulmonary function / longoedema = pulmonary oedema / longueur cranio-caudale = crown-rump length (embryol.) / longueur-tension = length-tension (relationship, diagram, of muscles) / looizuur = tannin; tannic acid (astringent) / loopvoet; loopvoeten = "foot problems" (EN writing then usually specifies the individual conditions involved); NL uses this blanket term for the full range of fungal and bacterial infections, wounds, ulcers, etc. commonly found in persons with poor foot hygiene, e.g. the elderly or homeless / Loslassschmerz = rebound tenderness (of abdomen, palpation) / loslating = detachment (retina e.g.) / masque de loup see aile de papillon / loupe = wen, see kyste épidermique / Löwengesicht see leeuwengezicht / LP = lipoprotein / LPS = lipopolysaccharide / LPW = long posterior wall (hip replacement) / LRD = lower respiratory disease / LRF = luteotropin releasing factor / LRR = light reflection rheography / LS = laparoscopic surgery / LSA = latex slide agglutination (test) / LSC = laparoscopy / LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; Lysergsäurediäthylamid; lysergzuurdiethylamide (chem. name); lysergide (pharm. name): amphetamine used in psychiatry up to 1966, thereafter a banned substance, used recreationally; in UK a Class A drug, also known as: acid; microdots; penguins, smilies; stars; strawberries; tabs; trips) / LSK = Laparoskopie, see LSC / LSV = long saphenous vein / LTE = life-threatening event / LTEL = long-term exposure limit (sum of concentrations averaged over 8 hrs) / LTH = luteotropic hormone; luteotropin / LTT = lymphoblast transformation test / LTx; LTX = liver transplant; lung transplant / LUC = large unstained cell / luchtpijp = trachea / bovenste luchtwege = upper airways (rmed.) / onderste luchtwege = deeper airways (rmed.) / luchtwegenaandoeningen = respiratory disease / luchtwegverwijder = bronchodilator (pharm.) / lucite see PLE (derm.) / luès = syphilis / luétique = syphilitic / luette = uvula / Lufthaube see Luftsichelzeichen / Luftröhre = trachea; windpipe / Luftröhrenschnitt = tracheotomy / Luftsichelzeichen = air crescent sign (rad./rmed.) / luiereczeem = nappy rash; (USA) diaper rash / lui oog = lazy eye; amblyopia / lumière = lumen (blood vessel e.g.) / Lumineszenzfolie see Speicherfolie / Lungenabstrich = lung biopsy / Lungenblähung = emphysema (rmed.) / Lungenbläschen = alveolus / Lungenblutung = pulmonary haemorrhage; haematoptysis / Lungenentzündung = pneumonia / Lungenfell = visceral pleura / Lungenfibrose = pulmonary fibrosis / Lungenfunktionsprüfung = lung function test; pulmonary function test; test of lung function; test of pulmonary function (test or testing) / lungengängig = respirable, see Staub / Lungengerüst = lung architecture; parenchyma / Lungengerüsterkrankungen see ILD / Lungenkarzinom = pulmonary carcinoma (usually bronchial carcinoma) / Lungenkreislauf = pulmonary circulation; lesser circulation / Lungenmechanik = lung mechanics / Lungenpest see longenpest / Lungenreinigung = pulmonary clearance / Lungenschlag = (fatal) pulmonary embolism / Lungenspülung = pulmonary lavage, see lavage / Lungenstarrheit = stiffness of the lungs (von Basch, 1887) / vermehrte Lungenstrukturen = condensed areas, masses (increases in lung tissue density as seen on the radiograph) / Lungenvolumina = lung volumes / Lungenwurzel = hilum / Lungenzeichnung = lung markings (rad./rmed.) / luselektrode = loop; loop electrode (surg.) / hormone lutéale = progesterone / hormone lutéinisant see LH / LUTS = lower urinary tract symptoms / LV = left ventricle / LVH = left ventricular hypertrophy / LVI = left ventricular insufficiency / LVS = low volume sampling / LWS = Lendenwirbelsäule = lumbar spine / Lykorexie = bulimia / lymfatisch see lymphatique / lymfbaan = lymph vessel / lymfklier = lymph gland; lymph node / lymfknoop = lymph gland; lymph node / lymphatique (adj.) = lymph (cells, glands, nodes, vessels); lymphatic (drainage, system, tissue) / ganglion lymphatique = lymph node / lymphatiques (noun) = lymphatics; lymph vessels; lymphatic system / lymphoïde = lymphoid; lymphatic (tissue, system) / lymphoblastosarcome = ? poorly differentiated lymphosarcoma / tissus lymphoïdes = lymphoid tissue (NB lymphatic tissue = lymph vessels + lymphoid tissue) / auf dem Lymphwege = via the lymphatic system / lyosomale Enzyme = lyosomal enzymes / lyse cellulaire = cell lysis / lysotypie = phage typing  / Lyssa = rabies (obsol.) /


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