Glossary of Medical Terms, Abbreviations & Symbols
Dutch-English, French-English, German-English


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c = 1. capillary; 2. compliance; 3. cyclic / C = coqueluche cellulaire see wP / Ca = coqueluche acellulaire see aP / CA = 1. cardiac arrest (also CRA); cornu Ammonis; Ammon's horn; use hippocampus; / "cabbage" see CABG / CABG = coronary artery bypass graft / cabinet du practitien = doctor's surgery / cabrade = bucking (of patient under anaesthetic) / CAC = coronary artery calcium (score, devised Agaston) / CAD = 1. Consultiebureau voor Alcohol en Drugs (NL); 2. coronary artery disease / cadavres nucléaires see ombres de Gümprecht / caducée = caduceus, staff (symbol of healing and the medical profession. There is either the caduceus of Hermes (with 2 serpents entwined round it), or the staff of Aesculapius, with just one serpent. Strictly speaking, medical professionals adopt the 1-serpent variant (cf. the WHO logo), whilst commercial organisations (including US hospitals) and the military use the 2-serpent variant... For more on this, see http://drblayney.com/Asclepius.html. / caduque utérine = endometrium; lining of the womb; decidua (gyn/obst.) / CAE = contact allergic eczema / caillot = (blood) clot / caisse du tympan = tympanic cavity (ear) / médecine de caisse see Kassenarzt / caisson = chamber (hyperbaric e.g.) / Caisson-Krankheit; caissonziekte; maladie des caissons = decompression sickness; "the bends" (diving med.) / cal = callus / cal vicieux = malunion (orth.) / calciférol = vitamin D / calciprive = calcium-deficient, calciprivic / calcul = stone; calculus (kidney, gall) / calcul biliaire = gallstone) / cale = support (for patient's body parts during surgery) / callosité = callus (derm.) / calotte crânienne = calvaria; dome of cranium; "skullcap" / calvitie = baldness (irreversible, as opposed to alopecia, which may not be) / canal = canal, duct, vas (depending on context) / canal médullaire = medullary space / cancérogène = carcinogenic / Candidamykose = thrush; candidiasis (usually by Candida albicans) / canule = cannula / cannabis (Class B drug in UK: other names include blow; dope; draw; ganja; gear; grass; kif; hash; hashish; marijuana; pot; puff; skunk; wacky backy; weed / capacité discriminante = predictive accuracy (of a test) / capacité de fermeture = closing capacity, see CC (rmed.) / CAPD = continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis / capsulite rétractile = "frozen shoulder" / capter = trap (phagocytes e.g.) / capteur = analyser; sampler (blood gases e.g.) / CARA = chronsiche aspecifieke respiratoire aandoeningen (NB acronym used in German too) see CNSLDCNSPD / caractère génétique = genetic trait / carapatient (general, non-specialist designation) = patient with lung disease, see CARA / carbonzuur = phenol; carbolic acid (antimicrobial agent) / gaz carbonique = carbon dioxide / carcinogenicity (IARC monographs & classification): sufficient, limited, inadequate or no evidence. Substances in class 1: carcinogenic to humans; class 2a: probably carcinogenic to humans; class 2b: possibly carcinogenic to humans; class 3: not classifiable as to (their) carcinogenicity to humans / carcinome épidermoïde = squamous cell carcinoma / cardia = 1. heart; 2. cardia; pars cardiaca gastris (cardiac opening between oesophagus and cardiac part of stomach) / coût cardiaque = "il correspond au nombre de pulsations ou extrapulsations cardiaques qui se sont produites, au cours de la période d'activité considérée, au-dessus du niveau de repos de la fréquence cardiaque" / système cardionecteur = nodal tissue (card.) /  carène = carina / thorax en carène = keel chest, see also bréchet / à carnation claire = fair-skinned; light-skinned / carnet d'irradiation = radiation exposure logbook, record book, X-ray medical card / grande caroncle duodénale = major duodenal papilla / petite caroncle duodénale = minor duodenal papilla / carotte de caoutchouc see coring / carpien = carpal / cART = combination antiretroviral therapy (HIV/Aids) / carte santé d'assuré = health card ("smart" card, replacing paper E111; EU) / carus see coma / Carvedilol® (pharm., a beta blocker) / CAS = calf serum (microbiol.) / réactions en cascade = cascade reactions / case-control study: "Essentially it is an epidemiological tool that looks backward from effect to cause - in contrast with other methods, such as the experimental or cohort follow-up, in which the effects are observed prospectively to see what changes result. In the case-control study the observer looks retrospectively at a group of patients with a specific disorder (say, cancer of the endometrium) and compares their rates of exposure to possibly relevant events (say, use of oestrogens as a treatment for menopausal symptoms) with those in at least one other group. From these observations deductions are made about the likelihood of different exposures in each group affecting the problems under scrutiny." (source: BMJ) / CAT = 1. (medical imaging) see CT 3. (the terms "CAT scan (scanner; scanning)" are used nowadays only in the spoken word);  2. conduite à tenir (heading on signs & instructions): suggest translating as "Important!" or "Warning!", with details as appropriate; 3. cognitive analytic therapy (psych.) / cataire = purr; purring (heart sound) / cataplasme = poultice; cataplasm / catégorie moyenne = midcategory (radiograph) / lobe caudé = caudate lobe; spigelian lobe (liver) / CAV = common atrioventricular canal (card.) / caverne = cavern; cavity (rmed.) / cavité articulaire = joint cavity / cavité pneumatique = air containing space / CBC = complete blood count (NB British English prefers FBC = full blood count), see blood count / CBD = common bile duct / CBG/MEB = College ter Beeordeling van Geneesmiddelen = Medicines Evaluation Board: NB both bits of the acronym are used (NL) / CBT = cognitive behavioural therapy / CC = closing capacity (= closing volume + residual volume) (rmed.) / CCDU = colour-coded Doppler ultrasonography, most commonly called CFI / CCIS = carcinome canalaire in situ see DCIS / CCMH = concentration corpusculaire moyenne en hémoglobine = mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) / CCOHS = Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (Hamilton, Ontario) / CCPPRB = comité consultatif de protection des personnes pour la recherche biomédicale = medical ethics review board / CCU = coronary care unit / CD marker = cluster differentiation marker (cells) / CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA, based Atlanta) / CDH = congenital displacement of the hip (term now obsolete, see DDH) / CDP = coefficient de ductance pulmonaire (obsolete?) = (CO) transfer factor; TLCO / CE = centre-edge (radiograph) / CEA = carcinoembryonic antigen / CEE = Central European encephalitis / ceinture abdominale = abdominal wall / ceinture pelvienne = pelvic girdle / ceinture scapulaire = shoulder girdle / celbruggetje = cell bridge / cellule caliciforme = goblet cell / cellule circulante = peripheral-blood cell / cellule neuronale et glial = neural and glial cell / cellule souche adulte = adult stem cell / Centre européen de prévention et de contrôle des maladies, use EN acronym see ECDC / Centre international de recherche sur le cancer see IARC / centrolobulaire = centrilobular (rmed.) / CEP = 1. circulating endothelial progenitor, see CEPC; 2. counterimmunoelectrophoresis / CEPC = circulating endothelial progenitor cell / céphalée = i. headache; ii. cephaloedema / liquide céphalorachidien = cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) / atteinte cérébrale grave = severe brain injury (could be stroke or trauma) / cérébrolésé = brain-damaged / CEREDOC = Confédération Européenne d’Experts en Réparation et Evaluation du Dommage Corporel = European Confederation of Bodily Injury Assessment and Compensation Experts (based Italy, unofficial title) / cerveau antérieur see prosencéphale / cerveau intermédiaire see diencéphale / cerveau moyen see mésencéphale / cerveau postérieur see rhombencéphale / cervelet = cerebellum / CF = 1. chest-foot (electrocard.); 2. complement fixation; 3. crest factor (vibration measurement) / CFA = cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (rmed.) / cfDNA = cell-free (foetal) DNA test(ing) or screening / CFF = critical flicker frequency (ophth.) / cffDNA see cfDNA / CFI = (Doppler) colour flow imaging; colour flow mapping (e.g. movement of blood through blood vessels) / CFS = chronic fatigue syndrome, see ME / CFTR = cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (protein) / CFU = colony-forming units (microbiol.) / CGMH = concentration globulaire moyenne en hémoglobine see CCMH / CGMs = continuous glucose monitoring system (diabetes: acronym also used to designate the measuring device, CGM singular/CGMs plural)/ CH = concentration en hémoglobine = haemoglobin concentration (HC) / chaînette opératoire = suture line; staple line / chaire de poule = gooseflesh; cutis anserina / Chalodermie = cutis laxa; chalazodermia; chalastodermia; dermatochalasis; dermatochalazia / chambre de chasse (cardiol.) see VOT / chambre de remplissage (cardiol.) see VIT / champage; champs = (surgical) draping; surgical drapes / champignon = fungus / chancre = chancre (syphilis) / nodosités en chapelet = (rachitic) beads; beading of the ribs; "rickety rosary" / charbon see anthrax 2 / charge globulaire moyenne = mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (measured in picograms per red cell) / charlotte = cap (protective clothing) / charnière = articulation (anat.) / syndrome de chasse = dumping syndrome (after gastric surg.) / "chaude-pisse" = "clap"; gonorrhoea / CHD = coronary heart disease / chef = head (of muscle) / médicament chef de file = "gold standard" drug / Chefarzt = (senior) consultant / chélateur des acides biliaires = bile acid sequestrant / cheminer = pass through (anat.: nerve through bone groove e.g.) / activité chémotactique pour les neutrophils = neutrophil chemotaxis / chevauchement (des médicaments) = (drug) overlap / CHF = 1. concentration hépatique en fer see LIC; 2. congestive heart failure / "chicot" = stump (of tooth) / CHIK = chikungunya (mosquito-borne viral disease; from Swahili word meaning "stooped walk") / chimiotaxie = chemotaxis / chimisme = chemistry (in sense of the totality of chemical effects) / chinin = quinine / chiropracteur = chiropractor / chiropractie; Chiropraxis = chiropractic / CHIT = Classification histologique internationale de tumeurs see TNM / chloration = chlorination (water supply e.g.) / chloruration = administration of sodium chloride / CHO = Chinese hamster ovary (cells) (microbiol.) / choanes = posterior nares / choc de pointe; choc systolique = apex beat (card.) / Cholesterin = cholesterol / cholesterolémie = high blood cholesterol / choliduque = common bile duct / chorion = 1. lamina propria (of a mucous membrane); 2. chorion (embryol.) / choriocentèse see CVS  / Chorionzotte = chorionic villus (gyn./obst.) / CHPT = cyclohexylphosphoric triamide (urease inhibitor) / CHR = centre hospitalier régional (FR) / aberration chromosomique = chromosomal aberration (gen.) / Chrysotil = chrysotile (asbestos) / CHS = comité d'hygiène et de sécurité (d'entreprise) / CHU = centre hospitalier universitaire = teaching hospital / chute = shedding (cells, uterine lining e.g.) / CI = 1. capacité inspiratoire see IC (rmed.); 2. cognitive impairment syn. cognitive disorder / CIA = communication interauriculaire = atrial septal defect (ASD) / CIAV = communication interauriculo-ventriculaire = persistent common atrioventricular canal; atrioventricularis communis / CIC = cancer intracanalaire du sein see DCIS / cicatrisation = healing; (less commonly) scarring / ciclosporine = cyclosporin (= the drug: strictly speaking cyclosporinA; cyclosporine = the natural substance) / CIM = Classification Internationale des maladies et problèmes de santé connexes see ICD / chirurgie à ciel ouvert = open surgery / Cilien = cilia / cilinderepitheel = columnar epithelium / cillement = blink; blinking / cinèse = kinesis / cinétoses; Kinetosen = motion sickness / cinquième maladie see fifth disease / CIPR = Commission Internationale de Protection Radioloqigue = International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) / CIRC = Centre international de recherche sur le cancer = International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (based Lyon) / circonflex = circumflex (vascular sys.) / bien circonscit = well-defined; well-circumscribed (lesion e.g.) / circonvolution = gyrus (brain) / méthode à l'hélium en circuit fermé = helium dilution technique (measures residual volume) (rmed.) / circulaires = coils (of umbilical cord e.g.) / sang circulant = circulating blood / lymphocytes circulantes = peripheral blood lymphocytes / grande circulation = circulation; systemic circulation; greater circulation (carrying blood from heart to body tissues and back) / petite circulation = pulmonary circulation; lesser circulation / cire de Horsley = (Horsley's) bone wax (haemotstatis) / CIS = 1. carcinoma in situ; 2. Centre d'Information de Sécurité et d'Hygiène du Travail = International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (ILO) / CITE = carence immunautaire T epidémique = AIDS / CIUMR = Commission Internationale des Unités et Mesures Radiologiques = International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) (founded 1925, based Washington) / CIV = communication interventriculaire = ventricular septal defect (VSD) / civière = stretcher / CJD = Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease / CK = creatinine kinase / CKD = chronic kidney disease / CL = 1. chest-left (electrocard.); 2. Clark's level (of invasion, melanoma staging) / CL = pulmonary compliance / clairance = (pulmonary) clearance (rmed.) / claquage = pulled muscle / claquage optique = optical breakdown (laser eye surgery) / clarté nucale see NT  / CLdyn = dynamic compliance (rmed.) / CLI = critical limb ischaemia / syndrome du clic apical systolique = click syndrome (card.) / cliché = radiograph; X-ray; film (rad.) / cliché "trop" normal = "barndoor" normal radiograph / cliché type de réferénce = standard reference radiograph / clivage = cleavage (cell division) / CLL = chronische lymphatische Leukämie; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia / Clofibrinsäure = clofibric acid (2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid) (pharm.) / cloison = septum (anat.) / cloison sagittale = sagital partition; cloison sagittale; Charpy's fascia (neck) / cloque sur le dos de la main = bulla dorsum manus (derm.) / clou = nail (orth.); boil (furuncle, pop.) / clouté = nodular (of cirrhotic liver) / CLst = static compliance (rmed.) / cM = centimorgan (map unit, genetics) / CME (ophthalm.) see CMO / CMI = 1. cell-mediated immunity; 2. concentration minimale inhibitrice = minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC / CML = chronic myelocytic leukaemia; chronic myelogenous leukaemia / CMO = cystoid macular oedema (US edema, so CME): "accumulation of fluid in the outer plexiform and inner nuclear layers of the retina with the formation of tiny cyst-like cavities" / CMT = Centre for Medical Technology (NL, part of TNO) / CMU = couverture de maladie universelle = universal health cover (FR) / CMV = cytomegalovirus / CNB = core needle biopsy / CNS = central nervous system / CNSLD = chronic non-specific lung disease / CNSPD = chronic non-specific pulmonary disease / CO = 1. complaining of; 2. conduction osseuse = bone conduction / cobaille = guinea pig / bombe au cobalt = cobalt unit; cobalt bomb ("thick-walled container, usually of lead, housing a powerful radioactive source of an isotope of cobalt (Co-60). The gamma rays emitted are used in radiotherapy") / cocaine = (in UK) Class A drug, also known as: coke; charlie; snow / Coecum = caecum / coefficient de transfert = transfer coefficient; commonly called Krogh factor, KCO (rmed.) / plexus coeliac = solar plexus (anat.) / coeliochirurgie = (surgical) laparoscopy; "keyhole" surgery; minimally invasive surgery / coelioscopie (diagnostic or surgical) laparoscopy / coeur artériel = left heart / coeur pulmonaire = cor pulmonale (rmed.) / coeur veineux = right heart / coffeïne = caffeine / COHb = carboxyhaemoglobin / coiffe = cuff (rotator cuff e.g.) / coiffer: "coiffant le bord externe du..." = lying upon the outer edge of the..." (anat.) / "coke" see cocaine / col = neck (bones of finger e.g.) / col utérin = cervix (gyn.) / COLD = chronic obstructive lung disease (syn. COPD) / colectasie = toxic megacolon / colibacille = E. coli; Escherichia coli / colite ulcéreuse = ulcerative colitis / collaberen = collapse / collageenziekten = connective tissue diseases; collagen diseases (NB not same as collagen disorders, which are inborn disorders of metabolism) / veine collatérale = branch vein; tributary vein / colle biologique = tissue glue; biological glue / collet = neck (of tooth); cervix dentis / collutoire = (concentrated) oral rinse; mouthwash; gargle (sometimes called a collutory; cf. gargarisme) / collyres = eye drops / côlon irritable = irritable bowel (syndrome); spastic colon / colonne vidéo = video tower (endoscopy) / colonnes charnues = trabeculations; trabeculae / colorant pulsé = pulsed dye (laser type) / coloration = stain; staining (microbiol.) / coloration vitale = supravital staining (microbiol.) / the 100-hue test of colour discrimination / Columbia (colistin-nalidixic acid) agar / coma carus = deep coma / coma dépassé = irreversible coma; persistent vegetative state; brain death / COMARE = Committee on the Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (UK) / comitial = epileptic / comminutif = comminuted (fracture) / Comité Permanent des Médecins de la CEE = Standing Committee of Doctors of the EEC (based Denmark) / Committee on Safety of Medicines (UK) / en communauté = out-of-hospital (heart attack e.g.); community-based (educational programme e.g.) / communication coronaro-ventriculaire = coronary artery fistula / communication interauriculaire (CIA) = atrial septal defect / communication interventriculaire (CIV) = ventricular septal defect (VSD) / co-morbidité = co-morbidity /"compère loriot" = stye; hordeolum (ophth.) / compliantie = compliance (rmed.) (also psych. = patient's willingness to cooperate) / compliceerd = open; complicated (fracture) / composition hépatique = hepatic profile / compresse chirurgicale = pledget (padding strip or patch, often of PTFE, used to buttress sutures) / compte-gouttes = (medicinal) dropper / COMT = catechol-o-methyltransferase / concentration globulaire moyenne = mean corpuscular (haemoglobin) concentration (measured as %) / concurrence encadrée = managed competition (definition: Government regulation of a health care market which uses competition as the means to achieve efficiency objectives within a framework of government intervention designed to achieve other policy objectives, such as equity. Also called regulated competition Source: OECD, 1992) / condensations massives, formes condensées = condensed masses (pneumoconiosis): "Les spécialistes ont cependant appris, depuis la regression de l'endémie tuberculeuse, que beaucoup de condensations massives peuvent se développer en l'absence de bacilles de Koch. Ce problème de co-facteurs dans la fibrose massive reste donc entièrement ouvert." "L'apparition des formes condensées tardives..." "The lungs contain condensed masses of fibrous tissue heavily infiltrated with collections of coal dust particles..." "It is no longer believed that tuberculous infection plays any part, but it seems possible that the deposition of fibrous tissue may be part of an immune mechanism." / conditionné = (placed) in a container (specimen) / milieu conditionné = conditioned medium (microbiol.) / conductance des voies aériennes = airway conductance (rmed.) / conduit = channel (anat./ of probe) / conduites instinctives = instinctual behaviour (neurol.) / condylien = condylar / personne de confiance = "person of trust" (under FR law, can make a patient's wishes known, but not actually take decisions for the patient) / confluence = coalescence (of lung opacities) (rad./rmed.) / conisation = cone biopsy / conjonctif = connective (tissue e.g.) / cartilage de conjugaison = connecting cartilage / connataal = congenital / lignée consanguine = blood line / Conseil International sur les problèmes de l'alcoolisme et des toxicomanies = International Council on Alcohol and Addictions (based Lausanne) / Conseil de l'Ordre des Médecins = (French) medical council (by analogy with the UK practice, "council" is perhaps a better translation (cf. GMC) than "association" (cf. BMA)) / consentement éclairé = informed consent / durée de conservation = shelf life (pharm.) / consommation d'oxygène = oxygen consumption (rmed.) / constantes vitales = (syn.) signes vitaux = vital signs / consulent = consultant (physician) / contamination veineuse = venous admixture (rmed.) / contention = fixation; immobilisation; setting (orth.); fixation; osteosynthesis (maxillof.) / muscles de la continence = muscles of continence / continue werkend = CW; continuous wave (laser) / contondant = blunt (instrument); causing bruising / contour cardiaque = cardiac outline (rad.) / tube contourné = convoluted tubule (kidney) / contraindication: "a contraindication to the use of .." / contre-coudé = double-angled (surg. instrument) / contre-latéral = contralateral (anat.) / contre-poison = antidote / Control of Pollution Act 1974 (UK) / controlatéral see contre-latéral / conventionné = 1. (suggest) affiliated (of doctor working within the French national health system; or use FR term with explanation; 2. fixed, standard (price, fee, etc. for products and services under a 'convention' between an affiliated doctor and the national health service, determined on the basis of set tariff scales and drug schedules) (FR) / enzyme de conversion = converting enzyme / convolution(s) = gyrus (gyri) (brain) / COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (tends to be US usage, cf. COLD) / coproculture = stool culture; faecal culture (microbiol.) / coque = fibrous capsule (around breast implant) / calcification en coquille d'oeuf = eggshell calcification (rad./rmed.) / cor = corn; clavus; heloma (foot) / Cor/Pulmo-Rö see CXR / coronarite = 1. CHD; 2. (rare) coronaritis / coronaropathie see CHD / corbeillage = basket-like architecture; basket-type pattern (oncol.) / coring = (defined) phenomenon whereby a small fragment of rubber from the stopper of a medication vial is pushed into the vial's contents when a needle is inserted through the stopper. NB the EN literature calls the displaced piece of rubber a "fragment" rather than e.g. a "core". / corne anterieure de la moelle = anterior horn of spinal cord / cornet nasal; cornet du nez = nasal concha; turbinate bone / coronarographie = angiography (usu. without the "coronary" once context is clear. (Coronary) arteriography is a synonym but now less used) / corps = body (of muscle) / corps flottant = floating spot (ophth.) / corps jaune = corpus luteum (gyn.) / cortex surrénalien = adrenal cortex / corticolibérine see libérine / corticosurrénale see cortex surrénalien / cortisol = hydrocortisone (pharm.); cortisol (biochem.) / cortisone = 1. hydrocortisone (pharm., shorthand for the synthetic hormone); 2. cortisone (biochem.) / costotome = rib shears (surg.) / côtes fausses = false ribs / côtes flottantes = floating ribs / côtes vraies = true ribs / cou-de-pied = instep (foot) / coudé = (general) bent; geniculate; (of ureter) kinked / coulisse see gouttière / coup du lapin = whiplash (injury) / doigts (main) en coup de vent cubital = ulnar deviation; ulnar drift / coupants/piquants = (surgical) "sharps" / coupe = cross-section; "slice" (tomography); section (histol.) / coupe à congélation; coupe en congélation, see FS / couplets (ECG) / courbature = lumbago; joint stiffness / courbe isovolume pression débit = isovolume pressure flow curve (rmed.) / court-circuit = shunt (card., rmed.) / coussinet charnu = fleshy pad (fingertip e.g.) / coussinets = padding (of body pressure points during surgery) / coût cardiaque = cardiac cost ("il correspond au nombre de pulsations ou extrapulsations cardiaques qui se sont produites, au cours de la période d'activité considérée, au-dessus du niveau de repos de la fréquence cardiaque") / couturier = sartorius (muscle) / couveuse = incubator (neonates) / CoV = coronavirus / os coxal = hip bone; os coxae / coxalgie = tuberculosis of the hip joint / cP = chronische Polyarthritis, see RA. 2 / CP = 1. cerebral palsy; 2. choid plexus; 3. coproporphyrin; 4. = Cor/Pulmo-Rö see CXR / CPA = coeur pulmonaire aigu = acute cor pulmonale / CPAP = (nasal) continuous positive airway pressure (rmed.: treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea) / CPC = coeur pulmonaire chronique = chronic cor pulmonale / CPE = cytopathic effect / CPK = creatinine phosphokinase / cpm = coups par minute = beats per minute (bpm) / CPM = continuous passive motion device (orthop.) / CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation / CPS = Compendium des produits et spécialités pharmaceutiques = Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (Canada) / CPT = capacité pulmonaire totale = total lung capacity, see TLC (rmed.) / CPU = coproporphyrins in the urine; urinary coproporphyrins / CPUE = capacité pulmonaire utilisable à l'effort = forced expiratory volume in 1 second, see FEV1 (rmed.) / see capacité pulmonaire utilisable à l'effort / CR = 1. chest-right (electrocard.); 2. circulorespiratory; 3. computed radiography / CRA = 1. cardiorespiratory arrest; cardiac arrest; 2. clinical research associate / crachats = sputum; expectorate; phlegm (rmed.) / crachoir = spittoon (rmed.) / crack cocaine = (in UK) Class A drug, also known as: crack; freebase; rocks / CRAM = caisse régionale d'assurance-maladie = regional health insurance fund (FR) / crâne cérébral = cerebral cranium / "crash team" = emergency resuscitation team in a hospital A & E department (emed.) / CRD = chronic respiratory disease / C-reaktives Protein = C-reactive protein / CREDES = Centre de recherche et documentation en économie de la santé = Research and Information Centre for Health Economics, now IRDES (FR) / crépitation = crepitation (of fractured bones); crepitation (rmed, see breath sounds) / creusant = burrowing (e.g. infection in anal fissure) / CRF = 1. capacité résiduelle fonctionnelle = functional residual capacity, see FRC (rmed.); 2. chronic renal failure (more commonly called CKD); 3. corticotropin releasing factor / crise = seizure, fit (epilepsy) / CRI = chronic renal insufficiency, more commonly called CKD / crises douloureuses abdominales = stomach cramps / cristallin = (crystalline) lens (ophth.) / critère intermédiaire; critère de substitution = surrogate endpoint (in clinial trial: an indicator or sign used in place of another to tell if a treatment works, e.g. shrinkage of a tumour as opposed to death) / critical concentration: concentration measured at time when first adverse effect appears (tox.) / os crochu = unciform bone (hand) / croisé = cruciate (ligament) / croisière, dose de = maintenance dose / crosse = arch (e.g. aorta); junction / crossectomie = saphenofemoral ligation and stripping; "high tie" / CRP = C-reactive protein / CRS = total respiratory compliance / CRT = 1. cell residence time; 2. conformal radiotherapy ("shapes" the beam to the tumour, sparing healthy tissue); 3. capillary refill time (prolonged CRT is an indicator of shock, circulatory failure..) / surface cruentée = denuded surface (epithelium removed) / Cruorgerinnsel see blood clot / CSA = Controlled Substances Act (USA) / CsA = cyclosporin A / CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; liquor cerebrospinalis / CSH = cellule souche hématopoïétique see HSC 2.  / CSM = 1. cellule souche mésenchymateuse, see MSC; 2. Committee on Safety of Medicines (UK) / CSN = cellule souche neurale see NSC / CSR = Cheyne-Stokes respiration / CSW = commercial sex worker (WHO-approved term) / CT = 1. capacité totale, see TLC; 2. (indice) chimiothérapeutique = therapeutic index; 3. computed tomography; computerised (axial) tomography; computer-assisted tomography (but NB "computer tomography" is deprecated); 4. connective tissue / CTA = CT angiography / CTD = 1. Common Technical Document (EU; clinical trials; required format of a MAA); 2. Control of Tropical Diseases (division) (WHO) / CTDIw = weighted computed tomography dose index / CTG = cardiotocography / CT-gestützt = CT-assisted (planning of radiotherapy) / CTS = carpal tunnel syndrome / CTSP = called to see patient / CTT = computed transaxial tomography, see CAT / CTV = clinical target volume (radiotherapy) / cubital = ulnar (nerve e.g.) / cuir chevelu = scalp / cancer en cuirasse (all languages): carcinoma of the skin with thickening and induration over large area of thorax, often as result of metastasis from primary breast lesion (Dorland) / cuisses en culotte de cheval see lipoméries / CUM = cysto-urétographie mictionelle = voiding cystourtherography / cumulus = cumulus; hillock (cells) / cupuliforme = dome-shaped / curage: NB in French = (tissue) removal, ablation, disssection, resection; in English (rare) = curettage done manually as opposed to using a curette / curage axillaire see ALND / curage cervical = neck dissection (pioneered by Crile, 1906) / curage ganglionnaire = lymph node resection / cure thermale = spa resort cure; hydrotherapy / curiethérapie = brachytherapy; radium therapy (NB "curietherapy" is seen but only in non-native English) / cursus professionnel complet = whole work history (OSH) / CUSA = cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspiration (electrosurg.) / CUSLK = chronische unspezifische Lungenkrankheit see CNSLD / cutiréaction = skin reaction; cutaneous reaction / cuve = vessel (cell cultures) / CV = 1. capacité vitale = vital capacity, see VC (rmed.); 2. champ visuel = visual field; field of vision; 3. closing volume (rmed.) / CVA = cerebrovascular accident / CVD = 1. cardiovascular disease; 2. cerebral vascular disease / CVS = 1. chorionic villus sampling (gyn./obst.); 2. chronische vermoeidheids syndroom, see CFS / CVSF = conduction velocity of the slower fibres (ulnar nerve) / CVT = Cervixtupfer = cervical swab / Cw = chest wall compliance (rmed.) / CW = 1. compatible with; 2. continue werkend; continuous wave (laser type) / CWP = coal worker's pneumoconiosis / CXR = chest X-ray; chest film; chest radiograph (rad.) / cycle extrinsèque = life stage (parasitol.) / cycle respiratoire = respiratory cycle; breathing cycle, see RF) (rmed.) / cylindre urinaire = urinary cast; urinary cylinder / cytokine: a messenger protein which stimulates killer T-cells to destroy tumour cells / cytométrie de flux; cytométrie en flux, see FACS / cytopathogène = cytopathic (effects) / cytostéatonécrose = fat necrosis; cytosteatonecrosis / CZS = centrale zenuwstelsel = central nervous system (CNS) /


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