Glossary of Medical Terms, Abbreviations & Symbols
Dutch-English, French-English, German-English


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Aa = alveolar-arterial / AA = 1. antigen-antibody (reaction); 2. atomic absorption / AAA = abdominelle Aortenaneurysma = abdominal aortic aneurysm / aambeien = haemorrhoids; "piles" / aandrang = urgency (to urinate, defaecate) / aangeboren = congenital / aangrijpingspunt = (point of) insertion (distal point of attachment of muscle to bone it moves; contrast origin) / aanhechting = attachment (muscle to bone) / stoornis in de aanleg = genetic defect / een aanleg voor ... = a predisposition to develop... / aanvangsdosis = initial dose / A-aDO2 = alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient (rmed., blood gases) / AAF = 2-acteylaminofluorene / aambeeld = incus (ear) / AAP = 1. agent antiplaquettaire see AP agent; 2. alanine aminopeptidase / AAppO = Approbationsordnung für Apotheker = Licensing Order for the Practice of Pharmacy (DE) / aardbeivlek = strawberry mark; strawberry naevus, see haemangioma / aarsmade = pinworm; seatworm (Enterobius vermicularis) / AAS = atomic absorption spectro(photo)metry / Abbau = resorption (bone e.g.); degradation (chemicals e.g.); destruction (lung tissue e.g.): "Die Hemmung für aus weißen Blutkörperchen freigesetzten Proteasen verhütet einmal das Angehen eines überempfindlichen Bronchialsystems, was durch freie Proteasen im Bronchialbaum erzeugt werden kann, was andererseits den Abbau von Lungengewebe und damit die Entwicklung eines Lungenemphysems verhindert"; "Bullae are emphysematous areas in which there is complete destruction of lung tissue" / ABC = airway, breathing, resuscitation; (in D: "A = Atemwege freimachen; B = Beatmung; C = Circulation (+ D = Drugs)" (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) / ABCD = Assymetry, Border irregularity, Colour variation, Diameter > 6 mm (skin lesions) / ABDA = Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Apothekerverbände = Federal Union of German Associations of Pharmacists (but why the initial “A”?) / Abführmittel = laxative / ABG = arterial blood gases (test) / Abgang = passage (urine, stool) / abgangsfähig = passable (kidney stones e.g.) / abgeschwächt = 1. attenuated (vaccine); 2. diminished (breath sounds) / abgestorben = necrosed; necrotic (tissue) / schlecht abgrenzbar = ill-defined; poorly circumscribed (lesion e.g.) / abhorchen = auscultate; listen to / Abkläruntersuchung = investigative test / Abklatscher = contact sample (on plate or tape) (microbiology) / Abklatschkrebs = contact cancer / Abklatschverfahren = agar contact plate method (sample is pressed against the plate rather than swabbed) Abkochung = decoction (process and product); decoction; decoctum (product) (pharm.) / ablagern = deposit (substance in tissues) / Ablagerung = deposition (dust in lungs e.g.) / ablassen = drain (pus, fluid) / ableitend = efferent (nerves; vessels) / Ableitung = lead, electrode (ECG) / Ablösung = detachment (retina e.g.) / Abmagerung = weight loss / pilule abortive = emergency contraceptive pill; emergency contraception; (popular usage but deprecated) morning-after pill / Abortuszange = placenta and ovum forceps (gyn.) / abouchement = anastomosis; surgical opening / ABPA = allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire / Abrißbruch = avulsion fracture / Absättigung = saturation (blood gases e.g.) / abscheiden = eliminate (dust from lungs e.g.) / Abscherfraktur = chip fracture; flake fracture / abschilfern = shed (viruses, etc.) / Abschilferung = desquamation (tissue)/ Abschluß = terminal part (of organ, bone) / Abschnitt = segment (of lung) / Abschnürung = constriction; strangulation / Abschuppung = desquamation / Abschürfung = excoriation / Abschwemmung = elutriation (microbiol.) / absondern = secrete (hormones e.g.) / Abstammungslehre = theory of evolution / absteigend = efferent (nerve) / abstention-surveillance see WW / Absterberate (der Zellen) = cell mortality / abstillen = wean (paed.) / Abstoßung = (tissue) rejection / Abstrich = smear (hist.) / Abtreibung see Schwangerschaftsunterbrechung / abwehrgeschwächte Person = person with lowered resistance to disease / Abwehrspannung = reflex (abdominal e.g.) / ac = avec correction = adjusted (med. stat.) / AC = 1. acromioclavicular (joint, shoulder); 2. altération de conscience see ALC; 3. arrêt cardiaque see CA; 4. atteinte cognitive see CI / ACB = aortocoronary bypass; coronary artery bypass; coronary bypass / ACBP = Acyl-CoA binding protein / AcBz = Acetyl-Benzocain = acetyl benzocaine / accès = attack; bout (fever e.g.) / troubles de l'accommodation; Akkomodationsstörungen see verschwommen sehen / accoucheur = obstetrician (gyn.) / accouplement au hasard = random mating, see panmixie / accoutumance = habituation; addiction (narcotics) / accroches = suture snags (surgery) / ACD = acid-citrate-dextrose / ACDP = Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens (UK) / ACE = 1. antigène carcinoembryonnaire = carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); 2. angiotensin-converting enzyme / acharnement thérapeutique = (definition) persistence with treatment beyond point where benefit can reasonably be expected / AchE = acetylcholinesterase / Achsellymphknoten = axillary lymph nodes / Achsenzylinder = axon (nerves) / achteruitgang = loss; impairment (of lung function e.g.) / acide acétylacétique = acetoacetic acid / acide biliaire = bile acid / acide édétique = EDTA / acide gras = fatty acid / acide ribonucléique (ARN) = ribonucleic acid (RNA) / acido-résistant = acid-fast see AFB / acinus (plur. acini) = acinus; (sometimes as syn. of) alveolus / aCL = anticardiolipin antibodies (blood test for e.g. "sticky blood") / ACM = Arnold-Chiari malformation (cerebellum) / acouphène = tinnitus / ACP = analgésie contrôlée par le patient, see PCA / AcPABA = Acetyl-p-Aminobenzoesäure = acetyl-p-aminobenzoic acid / ACPIV = analgésie contrôlée par le patient intraveineuse, see IVPCA / ACR = arrêt cardio-respiratoire  see CRA / ACS = acute coronary syndrome / paiement à l'acte = fee per item (treatment) / acte chirurgical; acte opératoire = procedure; operation; surgery; intervention / ACTH = adrenocroticotroophormoon = adrenocorticotropic hormone; corticotropin / acuité visuelle = visual acuity; "eyesight" / ACVB = aortokoronaler Venenbypass, see ACB / AD = 1. Alzheimer's disease; Alzheimer disease (WHO-preferred name); 2. attention deficit (psych.) / Adamsapfel = Adam's apple; prominentia laryngea / ADD = attention deficit disorder, see ADHD / ademarbeid see Atemarbeit / ademcentrum = respiratory centre / ademhaling = respiration (lungs, cells) / ademhalingscentrum = respiratory centre / ademminuutvolume see MV / adempoging = respiratory effort / ademstilstand = apnoea / een ademteug nemen = to take a breath / adenoïde vegetatie = adenoidal vegetation; "adenoids" / adénolymphocèles = lymphadenovarices; lymph(atic) varices; varicose lymph nodes / adénome de la prostate see BPH / adénopathies = enlarged lymph nodes; lymphadenopathy; "swollen glands" / Ader = vein / Aderhaut = choroid (eye) / aderlijk = venous / ADH = l. antidiuretic hormone; antidiuretisch hormoon; 2. attention deficit and hyperactivity, see ADHD / ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (psych.) / Adhärenzen; adhérences = (tissue) adhesions / capacité d'adhérence = adherence (microbiol.: cells to slide e.g.); attachment (cells to other cells e.g.) / ADI = acceptable daily intake; admissible daily intake (FAO, WHO) / Adipositaschirurgie = bariatric surgery / ADKA = azide dextrose kanamycine agar (microbiol.) / ADL = activities of daily living / ADME = absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (toxicity parameters) / ADN = acide désoxyribonucléique see DNA / coupure de l'ADN; fragmentation de l'ADN = DNA cleavage / ADN libre circulant see cfDNA / ADP = adenosine diphosphate / ADPKD = autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease / ADR = adverse drug reaction (clinical trials) /

ADVENTITIOUS BREATH SOUNDS
Frenchman Laënnec invented the stethoscope in 1816 and described all abnormal (adventitious) breath sounds as "râles" (rattles). To distract his patients from thoughts of the death rattle(!) he also coined the term "rhonchus" - and there has been terminological confusion ever since. The modern trend is increasingly to classify all adventitious lung sounds as either "wheezes" or "crackles", but the earlier terms still coexist, adding to the confusion. The section below tries to clarify them...
RN049817293GB
The physics: Auscultated breath sounds vary according to the density of the underlying lung tissue. Over healthy tissue, with plenty of air spaces, the sounds seem quieter and travel more slowly. Over diseased, consolidated tissue, the sound seems louder and is more immediate.

ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY - Difference between rales and rhonchi:

Rale: discontinuous bubbling or popping sound (moist) heard on inspiration, as air passes through fluid in the lungs or when the effort of breathing in forces collapsed airway walls open. Rales are classified as coarse, medium or fine. They are typically heard in tuberculosis, bronchiectasis and pulmonary abscess, congestion or oedema. Extra-fine rales (crepitations) may indicate early pneumonia, tuberculosis or incomplete collapse of the lung. "Dry rales" are rhonchi or wheezes. Newer terminology classifies moist rales as "crackles" and dry rales as "wheezes".

Rhonchus: continuous musical sound (dry) heard during inspiration or expiration as air passes through airways narrowed by inflammation, mucus or smooth muscle spasm. Depending on the pitch it is a snoring or cooing, whistling, hissing, squeaking or squawking sound. If low-pitched (in the large airways, bronchi) it is called a sonorous rhonchus, if high-pitched (in the smaller airways, bronchioles) it is called a sibilant rhonchus or wheeze. Rhonchi are typical of asthma and bronchitis, and newer terminology calls them all "wheezes".

Other breath sounds often identified separately:
Stridor: a harsh, high-pitched fixed inspiratory wheeze indicative of upper airway obstruction and respiratory distress. This is common in infants (croup). Pleural rub; pleural friction rubbing: the creaking sound heard as inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during inspiration.

GERMAN TERMINOLOGY
Atemgeräusch = breath sound; lung sound
Rasselgeräusch (by itself) = rale; crackle (if moist); rhonchus; wheeze; dry rale (if dry):
feuchtes Rasselgeräusch = (moist) rale; crackling rale; crackle
trockenes Rasselgeräusch = dry rale; rhonchus; wheeze (see above).
German identifies the "rhonchi sonori et sibilantes" as Brummen, Giemen, Pfeifen and Schnurren, onomatopoeic terms in which the distinguishing factor is pitch. English writing is less graphic and usually talks only of "rhonchi" or "wheezes", qualifying them as appropriate. Thus:

Brummen = a sonorous rhonchus which sounds like rumbling, growling or snoring (the noise a bear makes!)
Giemen = a predominantly expiratory sibilant rhonchus (the typical wheeze in asthma)
(NB difference between this and Pfeifen is unclear - maybe just pitch, or Pfeifen may be a less "scientific" though commonly used term)
Pfeifen; pfeifende Atmung = a whistling sound heard either with or without the stethoscope: wheeze; sibilant rhonchus (also called "dry rale")
Schnurren = a sonorous rhonchus which sounds like cooing or purring
Zirpen = a squawk (see rhonchus)

grobblasiges Rasselgeräusch = coarse rale; coarse crackle; "Velcro rale"; gurgling rale (in death rattle)
kleinblasiges Rasselgeräusch: fine rale; fine crackle
feinblasiges Rasselgeräusch: crepitation (inspiratory extra-fine rale heard as alveolar walls are forced apart)
klingendes Rasselgeräusch: = consonating rale
nicht klingendes Rasselgeräusch: dull rale; non-consonating rale

DUTCH TERMINOLOGY
ademgeruis
= breath sound; lung sound
crepitaties = crepitations (NB fijne en grove crepitaties = fine and coarse rales, or crackles)
longgeluid = lung sound; breath sound
piepende en brommende rhonchi = wheeze; wheezing, cf. German terminology above
reutelgeluid see Rasselgeräusch above
reutelgeruis see Rasselgeräusch above

FRENCH TERMINOLOGY
bruit respiratoire
= breath sound; lung sound
NB despite Laënnec's distinction, the term "rhonchus" is rare in French; "râle" seems to be used to describe all adventitious breath sounds.)

râle crépitant = crepitation; fine rale; fine crackle
râle sifflant = wheeze; wheezing
sifflement expiratoire = wheeze; wheezing


Advisory Committee on Asbestos Cancers (IARC) / AE (A & E) = 1. Accident and Emergency (hospital casualty department); 2. adverse effect, see ADR / AER = 1. Association européenne de radiologie = European Radiology Association; 2. auditory evoked response / Aerobier = aerobe / aérosol doseur see MDI / aérosolthéraphie = nebuliser therapy; aerosol therapy / AERS = adverse event reporting system (pharm.) (USA:FDA) / staff of Aesculapius (Latin name) = the symbol of medicine (god of healing in antiquity, Greek name Asclepios); see also caducée / AESP = activité éléctrique sans pouls, see PEA (card.) / AEV = Arbeiter-Ersatzkassen-Verband (D) (health insurance) / AFB = acid-fast bacillus / AFC = antibody-forming cell / afdekmateriaal = (patient) drapes (surg.) / essai d'affaissement statique = static compression test (vertebral discs, e.g.) / affection = disease; condition; pathology / affections respiratoires chroniques = chronic respiratory disease / afflux = migration (of cells to site of infection e.g.) / afgesloten = occluded (blood vessels) / afgestoten = sloughed (necrotic tissue) / afkolven = express (breast milk) (gyn./obst.) / AFLP = amplified fragment length polymorphism / AFP = alpha-foetoprotein (gyn.) / afstemmen = tune (parts of an instrument system to work together) / aft = mouth ulcer; aphtha / After = anus / afwijking = abnormality; anomaly; deviation from the norm / afzuigen = evacuate; vent; suction away (e.g. of laser plume: "vapour is suctioned away from the therapy area") / Ag = antigen / AG = agglutination / Agap = anion gap / Agence européenne des médicaments see EMEA / AGEP = acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis / agglutination des plaquettes see agrégation plaquettaire / AgHBs; Ag HBs see HBsAg / AGIO = assistant-geneeskundige in opleiding (NL) (definition: postgraduate doctor undergoing specialist training) / paralysie agitante = see Parkinson, parkinsonisme / agrafe = clip (surg.) / agrégat = "sludge" (blood: intravascular agglutination) / agrégation plaquettaire = platelet aggregation (blood) / ägyptische Augenkrankheit = Egyptian conjunctivitis; trachoma; granular ophthalmia / AHI = apnoea-hypopnoea index (rmed.) / Ahle = surgical awl / Ahornsirupkrankheit = maple syrup (urine) disease (MSUD) / AI = 1. artificial insemination (vet.); 2. assurance-invalidité = disability insurance; invalidity insurance / AIA = artère interventriculaire antérieure, see LAD / AIC = accident ischémique cérébral = cerebrovascular accident (CVA) / AICD = automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator / AID = artificial insemination by donor / aide = (meaning type of surgical action needed) "repair" / aide médicale à la mort, see PAS / AIDS = 1. acquired immune deficiency syndrome; 2. Asbestos-Induced Diseases Society (UK) / aiguillage = (patient) referral / aiguille 4/8 ronde = 1/2 circle needle (surg.) / aiguille 4/8 triangulaire; aiguille 3/8 triangulaire = 1/2 circle cutting needle; 3/8 circle cutting needle (needle body is triangular and inside edge is a cutting edge) / médecin aiguilleur = 1. referring physician (Canada); 2. (defined) a physician who oversees day-to-day triage of surgical priorities and operational management (beds etc) in a hospital (Canada) / AIHA = autoimmune haemolytic anaemia / aile iliaque = ala ossis ilii; wing of ilium / éruption malaire en aile de papillon = butterfly rash (lupus) / battement des ailes du nez, see Nasenflügeln / AIM = Advanced Informatics in Medicine (EU programme) / aine = groin; inguinal region / AINS = anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien, see NSAID (pharm.) / air alvéolaire courant = alveolar volume; VA (rmed.) / air complémentaire = inspiratory reserve volume, see IRV (rmed.) / air courant = tidal volume, see TV (rmed.) / air de réserve = expiratory reserve volume, see ERV (rmed.) / air résiduel = residual volume, see RV (rmed.) / air supplémentaire see air de réserve (rmed.) / AIT = accident ischémique transitoire; attaque ischémique transitoire, see TIA / AJCC = American Joint Committee on Cancer / AJMT = apport journalier maximal théorique see TMDI / Ak = Antikörper = antibody / akvirieren = recruit (subjects for a study e.g.) / alacrymie = alacrimia (ophthalm.) / ALAD = delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase / alaise see alèze / ALARA = as low as reasonably achievable (OSH) / ALAT see ALT / Albarranhevel = Albarrán lever (deflecting mechanism used in urology) / albugo = albugo, see also taie / ALC = altered level of consciousness, syn. consciousness impairment / alcoholicus; alcoholist = alcoholic (person) / alcotest = breathalyser (test) / alèsage canalaire = radicular reaming (dentistry) / alèse see alèze / alexandrit (laser type) / alèze = drawsheet (surg.) / algoneurodystrophie = reflex sympathetic dystrophy / alicaments = pharmafoods; nutraceuticals / aliéné = mentally ill; insane / Alkalireserve = alkaline reserve / ALL = acute lymphocytic leukaemia / allergene Unbedenklichkeit = non-allergenicity / Allergenität = allergenicity  allergische Reaktionsbereitschaft = allergic reactivity / Kreuzallergie = cross-reactivity; (less commonly) cross-allergy / Parallelallergie = parallel reactivity / Allgemeininfektion = sepsis / Alliance mondiale contre les Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (use EN acronym, see GARD) / allongé = 1. elongated (structure); 2. recumbent (body position) / alloxique = exogenous (stemming from external causes as opposed to originating internally) / ALND = axillary (lymph) node dissection (breast cancer); synonym ALNR = axillary (lymph) node resection / Alpdrücken = nightmare / déficite en alpha1-antitrypsine alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (rmed.) / ALS see adventitious lung sounds; 2. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; 3. antilymphocyte serum / ALT = Alaninaminotransferase (D); alanine aminotransferase / ALTE = apparently life-threatening event / altération de la plèvre = pleural change (rad./rmed.) / altération ultime = (clinical) end-stage / altérer = 1. to change; deteriorate; 2. to induce thirst / Altersbrand = senile gangrene / Alterssichtigkeit = presbyopia; long-sightedness of middle and old age / Aluminiumlunge see Aluminose / Aluminiumstaublunge see Aluminose / Aluminose = aluminosis (rmed.) / ALV = akutes Leberversagen = acute liver failure / Alveolarfortsatz = aveolar process (dent.) / alveolär-kapillärer Block = alveolar-capillary block (rmed.) / Alveolengang = alveolar duct (rmed.) / membrane alvéolo-capillaire = alveolar-capillary membrane (rmed.) / alvleesklier = pancreas / AM = ambient monitoring / Amboß see aambeeld / ambulant = 1. ambulant; able to walk; 2. (by extension) out-patient (person or treatment, contrast stationär) / Ambulanz = (outpatient) clinic / Ameisenkribbeln = pins and needles; tingling; formication (neur.); (in legs) "restless legs" / AMI = Assurance contre la Maladie et l'Invalidité (B) / amitose = amitosis; direct cell division / AMM = 1. Association Médicale Mondiale, see WMA; 2. autorisation de mise sur le marché = approval; licence; licensing (drugs, medical devices) / Ammonshorn see CA / AMNOG = Arzneimittelmarkt-Neuordnungsgesetz = Act on Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (DE) / amphetamines = recreational drugs, mostly (in UK) Class B, also known as: amp; billy whizz; poor man's coke; speed; uppers / amphiarthrose = cartilaginous joint / amplificateur de brillance = image intensifier / amplifiées en culture = culture-expanded (cells) / s'amplifier = proliferate (cells) / AMS = 1. axial motor signs (Parkinson's); 2. Arbeitsschutzmanagementsystem = OSH management system / amygdalectomie = tonsillectomy / matières amylacées = starches / amyotrophie = muscle wasting; loss of muscle mass / analgeticum = analgesic (pharm.) / anamnese = patient history; medical history; auto-anamnese = self-reported medical history / Aussenanamnese; heteroanamnese = (definition) medical history recorded by someone else e.g. family-reported or physician-reported / hoofdanamnese = case history; tractusanamnese = general medical history / anasarque = anasarca; (obsol.) dropsy / chaîne anastomotique = anastomotic chain (defined:"communication between blood vessels by means of collateral channels, especially when usual routes are obstructed") / rétrécissement anastomotique; sténose anastomotique = anastomotic stricture (post-operative complication) / anatomie pathologique = pathology / anatomopathologie = histology / examen anatomopathologique définitif = permanent section (specimen is examined after embedding, contrast frozen section, see FS / andropause = "male menopause" / anémie par carence; anémie carentielle = nutritional anaemia / anémie hémolytique acquise = Abrami's disease / anesthésiste = anaesthetist (UK); anesthesiologist (USA) (NB "anesthetist" in the USA is a lower qualification) / anfällig = susceptible / Anfärbbarkeit = stainability (microbiol.) / angeboren see aangeboren / angedaut = partially digested / angéite see vascularite / dem Körper angelagert = adducted to the body (limb) / Angina; angine = 1. pharyngitis, "sore throat"; 2. angina pectoris / angine de poitrine = angina pectoris / Angioarchitektonik = vascular architecture / angioma = 1. haemangioma; 2. lymphangioma / angor see angine de poitrine / Anhangsgebilde = appendages; adnexa (of uterus) / Anhustversuch = paroxysmal cough test / élimination d'anhydride carbonique = carbon dioxide output (rmed.) / animaal zenuwstelsel = somatic nervous system (in contrast to autonomic NS, in a functional as opposed to an anatomical subdivision of the NS) / anite = anusitis / Anlage = anlage: "the ovarian anlage is established during the first trimester of pregnancy" (syn. primordium, rudiment) / Anlotung = scanning; imaging (ultrasound e.g.) / annexes see Anhangsgebilde / annulaire = ring finger; annulus / ANR see ALNR / anregend = stimulating; stimulant (contrast lähmend) / ANS = autonomic nervous system (comprising sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; also called vegetative nervous system (VNS)) / ansatznah = close to point of attachment (of bone, tendon) / anse see Fangschlaufe / anse intestinale = intestinal loop / anspruchsvoll = fastidious (bacteria) / akuter Anstieg = surge (of luteinising hormone which triggers ovulation (gyn.) / hormone antéhypophysaire = anterior pituitary hormone / Anthracose = anthracosis (rmed.) / anthrax (FR) = 1. boil; carbuncle (skin infection); 2. anthrax (zoonitic disease) / vaccin antiamaril = yellow fever vaccine / anticonceptie = birth control; contraception / anticonceptionnel = contraceptive / antidépresseur = antidepressant; thymoleptic / Antihistiminikum = antihistamine / antilichaam = antibody / antimalarique see antipaludique / équipement en enzymes antioxydants = enzymatic antioxidants (cells) / antipaludéen see antipaludique / antipaludique = antimalarial (drug) antipalustre see antipaludique / médicament antiparasitaire = antiparasitic drug; parasiticide / Antirheumatikum = anti-inflammatory (drug) (pharm.) / antistof see antilichaam / vaccin antitétanique = tetanus antitoxin; antitetanus serum / antitussif = antitussive; cough medicine / antiviral = antiviral agent; antiviral drug; antiviral / antre gastrique = pyloric antrum; gastric antrum / Antriebsverlust = loss of motivation (psych./neurol./) / anuscopie = proctoscopy / Anwenderbeobachtung = observational study (e.g. post-marketing surveillance of a drug; no actual intervention by the researchers; nature takes its course) (pharm.) / anzeigepflichtig see meldepflichtig / AOx.. = alert and oriented in .. questions; alerte et orienté dans les .. sphères (asked in evaluation of mental status) / AOEL = acceptable operator exposure level (tox.) / AOMI = artériopathie oblitérante des membres inférieurs = PAD of the lower limbs / Aortenklappe = aortic valve / Aortenknopf; bouton aortique = aortic knob, aortic knuckle / aP = acellular pertussis / AP = 1. alkaline phosphatase; 2. aminopyridine; 3. anterio-posterior; 4. antiplatelet / APACT = 1. antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy; 2. automated platelet aggregation coagulation tracer, cf APACT aggregometer / AP agent = antiplatelet agent (more usually written in full) / APACT = Association pour la Prévention et l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail (based Paris; set up by French union UIMM) / APB = arterial premature beat (card.) / indice d'Apgar = Apgar score (newborns) / Aphthen = vesicles, aphthae / API = advanced pharmacy intervention (Ô of Biomérieux Vitek: the "API strip", "API-20E test kit" for the identification of e.g. salmonella) / transfert du CO en apnée = CO transfer factor by the single breath method, single breath CO transfer factor (rmed.) / aplomb = balance; steadiness (locomotion) / apophyse épineuse = spinous process / apoplexy = archaic term for cerebral stroke, apoplectic stroke / apoptose = programmed cell death; apoptosis (NB cells "apoptose") / apothekenpflichtig = pharmacy-only (drug) (NB not necessarily a "prescription drug"; under German law just means it can't be sold in e.g. a health shop or supermarket) / apallisches Syndrom see PVS / bas appareil; haut appareil: can often be called simply "lower" or "upper"/ appareil moteur = locomotive apparatus / appareil respiratoire = respiratory system / Approbation = "Approbation" (licence to practise pharmacy, DE) / appareillage, appareillé = (fitted with a) prosthesis, hearing aid, ostomy pouch (depending on the impairment) / apparition = onset (of symptoms, disease) / apport = supply; flow (blood) / apr (NL)  = apotheker = pharmacist / ligne âpre = rough line of femur; linea aspera femoris / APTT = activated partial thromboplastin time (blood) / APUD = amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation / APZ = algemeen psychiatisch ziekenhuis (NL) = general psychiatric hospital / Arabische gom = gum arabic; acacia (emollient) (pharm.) / arbeidstherapie = occupational therapy / Arbeitsanamnese = job history; occupational history; work history / arbeitsbedingt = work-related; occupational / Arbeitshand = dominant hand (source: J. of Bone & Joint Surgery) / Arbeitsmedizin see Betriebsmedizin / ARBO = arbeidsomstandigheden (NL) = occupational safety and health (literally = working conditions) / plus arborisé = more highly branched (neuron e.g.) / arcade crurale = inguinal ligament; inguinal arch / arcade dentaire = dental arch / arcthérapie dynamique, also called radiothérapie avec modulation d'intensité rotationnelle; arcthérapie volumétrique avec modulation d'intensité; arcthérapie modulée volumétrique, see VMAT / ARD = acute respiratory disease / maladie des ardoisiers = schistosis; slateworker's pneumoconiosis / ARDS = 1. acute respiratory distress syndrome (formerly adult respiratory distress syndrome) / ARfD = acute reference dose ("an estimate of the amount a substance in food or drinking water, normally expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested in a period of 24 h or less without appreciable health risks to the consumer on the basis of all known facts at the time of the evaluation") (WHO/FAO) / ARI = acute respiratory illness / ARN = acide ribonucléique = ribonucleic acid (RNA) / AROI = acceptable rate of oral intake (tox.) / AROM = 1. active range of motion (joints); 2. artificial rupture of membranes (obstet.) / arriération = (mental) retardation / arrière de l'anus = posterior anus / arrière-cavité des fosses nasales = rhinopharynx / arrière-gorge = oropharynx / Arrosion = erosion (blood vessel e.g.) / arrhythmia absoluta = atrial fibrillation / ART = 1. advanced restorative treatment (dent.); 2. antiretroviral therapy (HIV/Aids) / artériopathie (oblitérante) des membres inférieurs, see PAOD / artériosclérose = arteriosclerosis / Arteriosklerose = 1. arteriosclerosis; 2. atherosclerosis  / artérite des membres inférieurs, see PAOD (NB never "arteritis") / artfremdes Eiweiß = foreign protein / arthrocare® (surg. instrument, trademark of ArthroCare Corp., USA): actual product name is an "ArthroWand®"; seen in medical literature as "ArthroCare wand" / arthromoteur see CPM / arthrophyte = joint mouse; arthrophyte; arthrolith / arthrose see OA / Arthroskopiehülse = arthroscopic cannula (surg.) / articulé dentaire = alignment of teeth / troubles de l’articulé dentaire = misalignment of teeth /articulation coxo-fémorale = hip joint / articulation scapulo-humérale = shoulder joint / articulation médiotarsienne = transverse tarsal joint / ARV = antiretroviral (drug) / ARW = Arbeitsplatzrichtwert (D) (suggest) workplace guide level (a provisional limit value applied where it is not possible to set a MAK value and when there is no firm scientific evidence of carcinogenicity or reproductive toxicity) / arythmie complète = atrial fibrillation / Arzneimittelgesetz = Medicinal Products Act (D) / Ärztekammer = medical council (by analogy with the UK practice, "council" is perhaps a better translation (cf. GMC) than "association" (cf. BMA)) / ärztliche Sterbehilfe see PAS / ASA = acetylsalicylic acid ("aspirin") / ASAT see AST /  / Asbestkörperchen = asbestos bodies / Asbestose = asbestosis (rmed.) / Asbeststaublungenerkrankung see Asbestose / asbest-typische Krebserkrankungen des Bauchfells = asbestos-related peritoneal mesothelioma / Asbestwarzen = asbestos warts (rmed.) / ASCO = American Society of Clinical Oncology / ASD = 1. adjacent segment disease (neur.); 2. atrial septum defect / ASIA = American Spinal Cord Injury Association / Äskulapsstab see Aesculapius / ASLO = antistreptolysin O / ASO = atherosclerosis obliterans, a cause of PAOD / ASP = 1. abdomen sans préparation see KUB; 2. amnesic shellfish poisoning; poison / ASPA = Aluminium-Siliko-Polyacrylatzement (dent.) / Aspergillose = aspergillosis (rmed.) / ASS = Acetylsalicylsäure = acetylsalicylic acid; "aspirin" / assimilation imparfaite = malabsorption (nutrit.) / assistance ventilatoire = ventilatory support (rmed.) / Association internationale de broncho-pneumologie = International Broncho-Pneumologic Association (based Fontainebleau, has an annual congress) / AST = aspartate aminotransferase ASAT / Astblock = arborisation block (card.) / asthénie = malaise; feeling unwell / ästhetische Chirurgie = cosmetic surgery / attaque d'asthme = particularly severe asthma attack / crise d'asthme = asthma attack / asthma bronchiale = bronchial asthma / Astrupmethode = Astrup's interpolation method (measuring arterial CO2 tension and pH) (rmed.) / AT = antithrombin / Atemäquivalent = ventilatory equivalent (rmed.) / ATCD = antécédents see anamnese / Atemarbeit = work of breathing; respiratory work / Atembereich = breathing zone (air quality sampling) / Atemfrequenz = respiratory frequency; breathing frequency, see RF / Atemgeräusch = breath sound; lung sound, see notes under "adventitious breath sounds" / Atemgrenzwert = maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), see MBC (rmed.) / Atemlähmung = respiratory paralysis / Atemmechanik = mechanics of breathing / Atemminutenvolumen see MV / Atemmittellage = mean respiratory level (rmed.) / Atemnebengeräusch = adventitious breath sound; adventitious lung sound; added sound (pathological), see adventitious breath sounds / Atemnot = dyspnoea; breathlessness; shortness of breath / Atemschutz = respiratory protection / schwerer Atemschutz = high efficiency respiratory protective equipment (contrast "standard") / Atemschutzausrüstung, -geräte = respiratory protective equipment (RPE) / Atemspende = artificial respiration (e.g. "mouth-to-mouth"); pulmonary resuscitation / Atemstillstand = apnoea / Atemstoß = forced expiration; single breath (test, method, see entry under FEV) (rmed.) / Atemstoßwert = see FEV1) / Atemstrom = air flow (rmed.) / Atemtrakt = respiratory tract; airways / Atemtraktwiderstand = airway resistance; flow resistance / Atemtyp = breathing pattern / Atemwege = airways (rmed.) / chronisch obstruktive Atemwegserkrankungen = chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) / Atemwegsobstruktion = airways obstruction / Atemwegswiderstand see Atemtraktwiderstand / Atemwiderstand = respiratory resistance / Atemzeitvolumen = ventilation per unit time, usually "minute volume" (MV) (rmed.) / Atemzentrum see ademcentrum / Atemzugvolumen = tidal volume, see TV (rmed.) / Atemzyklus = respiratory cycle; breathing cycle, see RF) (rmed.) / ATG = abaissement de la tolérance au glucose, see IGT / Atherom = 1. see athérome 1; 2. sebaceous cyst / athéromatose précoce = accelerated atheromatosis / athérome = 1. atheromatous lesion; 2. atherosclerosis / athérosclérose; Atherosklerose = atherosclerosis / ATLS = advanced trauma life support (emed.) / ATMP = accidents de travail et maladies professionnelles = occupational accidents and illnesses (or diseases) (NB equates de facto to OSH) / Atmungsangst = respiratory anxiety (NB not same as respiratory distress) / Atmungsinsuffizienz = respiratory insufficiency / ATP = adenosine triphosphate / ATS = anti-tetanus serum / ATSDR = Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (USA) / attelle = splint; brace / attelle équin = equinus brace; equinus splint / attelle plâtrée articulée = cast brace / chimiothérapie d'attente = neoadjuvant chemotherapy / Attest = doctor's certificate / attique = epitympanic recess; attic (ear) / ATU = Allythiourea / AUC = area under curve / audiométrie tonal liminaire = pure tone threshold audiometry / audiométrie vocale = speech audiometry / Aufdosierungsphase = dose titration phase / auffälliger Befund = significant finding (X-rays: i.e. the abnormality being looked for is found; contrast unauffälliger Befund = non-significant finding (an abnormality is found but it is not the one being looked for) / Auffrischimpfung = booster (vaccination) / auffrischen = replenish (blood components e.g.) / Aufgußtierchen = Ciliophora; (obsol.) infusoria / Aufklappbarkeit = gaping (joint openable beyond the limits of its normal play, so joint space at the site is greater than it should be)(orthop.) / Aufnahme = uptake (blood gases) / Aufnahmebefund = findings on admission (to hospital) / Aufputschmittel = stimulants; performance-enhancing drugs; "pep" pills, see amphetamines / aufsteigend = afferent (nerve) / Auftreibung = distension (of hollow organ e.g.) AUG = Ausscheidungsurogramm, see IVU / Augapfel = eyeball; bulbus oculi / Augenhöhle = orbit / Augenzahn = canine; eye tooth / Augenzittern = nystagmus / AUm = meldepflichtige Arbeitsunfälle = reportable accidents (OSH) / auriculaire = little finger / auricule = 1. atrial appendage; atrium (card.); 2. ear lobe / AÜS = Abdomenübersichtsaufnahme, see KUB / Ausatemvolumen = expired volume (rmed.) / Auseinzelung = repackaging (dispensing of medicines from broken bulk or split packs); contrast OPD / Ausfall = abnormality / Ausfluß = discharge / Ausführungsgang = excretory duct / Ausgang = stoma (colostomy e.g.) / Ausgangswert = baseline (when comparing values) / dem Körper ausgelagert = abducted from the body (limb) / gering ausgeprägt = not very marked (symptoms e.g.) / ausgetragen = at full term (obst.) / Ausgußstein = staghorn calculus; staghorn stone (kidney) / aushelfender Träger = (suggest) assisting institution (EU+CH: "übernehmen im Auftrag der Krankenkasse, bei welcher der Patient versichert ist, aushilfsweise die Rechnungen der Ärtzte, Spitäler, Apotheken etc. Anschliessend werden diese Kosten den Krankenkassen in Rechnung gestellt.") / auskleiden = line (a cavity or organ) (anat.) / Auskratzung = curettage / Auslaßwiderstand = outflow resistance (urine) / AUSP = arbre urinaire sans préparation; appareil urinaire sans préparation, see KUB / Aussatz = leprosy / Ausschlag = (skin) eruption; rash / Ausschluß = deferral (suspension of eligibility to donate blood) / ausschütten = secrete (hormones) / Ausschüttung = release (dopamine e.g.) / ausschwärmend = spreading (to) / Ausschwemmung = spread; proliferation (cancerous cells e.g.) / Ausspiegelung = visualisation; inspection (via an endoscope e.g.) / ausspülen = to lavage, see lavage / Ausstanzen eines Stopfenfragments see coring / Austauschtransfusion = exchange transfusion (blood) / austragen = deliver (obst.) / austreten = protrude / Auswärtsschielen = wall-eye, see strabisme; Strabismus / Auswurf = (material) sputum; expectorate; phlegm; (action) sputum production; expectoration; (NB "Husten mit Auswurf" = "a productive cough") / autolyse = suicide / automutilation = self-harm / autonomie en air = (suggest) independent breathing (i.e. patient is breathing normal air, unassisted, and is not attached to a gas supply) (rmed.) / autorenouvellement = self-renewal (cyt.) / autosondage intermittent see ISC / AV = 1. arteriovenous; 2. atrioventricular / avant-coureur = precursor (noun); early; warning (sign) (adj.) / A.V.-Block = atrioventricular block (card.) / AVC = accident vasculaire cérébral, see CVA / a-vitaal = nonviable (cells) / Avitaminose = vitamin deficiency / AVK = arterielle Verschlußkrankheit = arterial disease; arterial occlusive disease / AVM = arteriovenous malformation / avortement provoqué see IVG / avortement spontané = spontaneous abortion; miscarriage / avulsion dentaire = tooth extraction, dental extraction / AWBZ = Algemene Fonds Bijzondere Ziektekosten (NL) (suggest) General Fund for Special Health Costs / AWI = average weekly intake / axe cérébro-spinal = central nervous system (CNS) / AZ = Allgeneiner Zustand = (objective, based on e.g. tests) general condition; (subjective assessment e.g. on admission) use phrases such as "general appearance", "patient appeared well" / AZOOR = acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (ophth.) / inhalation unique d'azote = single breath nitrogen (method, test) / AZS = autonome zenuwstelsel = autonomic nervous system (ANS) / AZT = azidothymidine / AZV = Atemzugvolumen, see TV

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Last updated 15 October 2018
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