Glossary of Medical Terms, Abbreviations & Symbols
Dutch-English, French-English, German-English


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E2 = serum oestradiol (gyn.) / EA = early antigen / EAC = effective area coverage (OSH, dust) / EACA = epsilon-amino-caproic acid (inhibits action of fibrinolysin, aids clotting) / EAEC = enteroaggregative E. coli (bacteriol.) / EASHW = European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (Bilbao) / EB = embryoid body / ébauche = primordium; rudiment; anlage (embryol.) / EBCT = electron beam computed tomography / EBM = evidence-based medicine / éboueur = scavenger (cell e.g.) / EBR = efficacité biologique relative see RBE (rad.) / EBV = Epstein Barr virus / EC = effective concentration (tox.) (e.g. EC50 = concentration of a substance required to produce a given effect) / écaille = squama / Ecarinzeitwert see ECT / écarteur = retractor (surg.) / écarteur chirurgical éclairé = illuminated surgical retractor / ECBU = examen cytobactériologique des urines = urinalysis and culture (can also mean MSU, the sample used) / ECDC = European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (EU, based Stockholm) / ECF = 1. eosinophil chemotactic factor (rmed., in sputum); 2. extracellular fluid / ECG = electrocardiography (-gram); elektrocardiogram (-graaf) / échancrure = incisure / échanges gazeux = gas exchange (rmed.) / échappement = lack of effect; failure (of a treatment) / "échauffement" = gonorrhoea / Réseau Européen de surveillance de l'Échinococcose alvéolaire = European Echinococcosis Registry = Europäisches Echinokokkose-Register (EurEchinoReg) (EU) / ECHO virus = enteric cytopathic human orphan virus; echovirus / échographie = ultrasonography; ultrasound; ultrasonic scanning; echography / échographie-Doppler = Doppler ultrasound / surveillance échographique = serial ultrasound scanning (gyn./obst.) / échotomographie see échographie / eci = e causa ignota = cause unknown; of unknown origin / Eckzahn = canine; eye tooth / éclisse = splint; brace (esp. dentistry) / éclosion = outbreak (chiefly Canadian or old-fashioned usage) / ECM = extracellular matrix / écoeurant = nauseating / ECOG = Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group: the ECOG scale of performance status has 5 groups - 0 = Fully active, able to carry on all pre-disease performance without restriction; 1 = Restricted in physically strenuous activity but ambulatory and able to carry out work of a light or sedentary nature, e.g. light house work, office work; 2 = Ambulatory and capable of all selfcare but unable to carry out any work activities. Up and about more than 50% of waking hours; 3 = Capable of only limited selfcare, confined to bed or chair more than 50% of waking hours; 4 = Completely disabled. Cannot carry on any selfcare. Totally confined to bed or chair; 5 = Dead / EcoG = electrocorticography (-gram) / écoulement = discharge (gyn.) / écoulement nasal = runny nose / écouvillon = swab; (rarely) écouvillon / écranchure sigmoïde = sigmoid notch (anat.) / Ecstasy (recreational drug, in UK Class A) = MDMA, patented 1914 as appetite suppressant for German troops; also known as: biscuits; discoburgers, discs; love doves; XTC / ECT = 1. ecarin clotting time (thrombin inhibitors); 2. electroconvulsive therapy / ED = 1. effective dose (ED50 = median effective dose) (tox.); 2. erste Diagnose = first diagnosed / EDD = end-diastolic diameter (card.); expected date of delivery (obstet.) / édentation complete = complete edentulism; loss of all teeth / édentation partielle = partial edentulism; loss of (some) teeth / édenté = edentulous; toothless / EDNOS = eating disorders not otherwise specified / EDQM European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare (Council of Europe) / EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid / Union Internationale pour l'Education Sanitaire = International Union for Health Education (Paris) / édulcorant = sweetener; edulcorant / EEC = enterovirulent E. coli (bacteriol.) / EEE = eastern equine encephalomyelitis (virus) / EEG = elektroëncefalogram (-graaf); Elektroencephalographie (-gramm) = electroencephalography (-gram) / EEL = emergency exposure limits (rad.) / eelt = callus / eeltknobbel = bunion / eeneiig = monozygotic (twin) / eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg = primary health care / eetstoornis = eating disorder / EFA = essential fatty acids / s'effacer = disappear; resolve itself (disease or symptoms) / effet nul = no (adverse) effect / Effloreszenz = skin lesion / effractif = invasive (surg.) / EFO = elekectro fysiologisch onderzoek = electrophysiology study; EP study; EP testing (card.) / EFO-ablatie = EP study and ablation (card.) / EFP = 1. épreuve fonctionnelle pulmonaire; 2. exploration fonctionnelle pulmonaire, see EFR / EFR = 1. épreuve fonctionnelle respiratoire = lung function test; pulmonary function test (PFT); respiratory function test; 2. exploration fonctionnelle respiratoire = lung function testing; pulmonary function testing; respiratory function testing (rmed.) / EFS = Etablissement Français du Sang = French Blood Agency (national) / EG = embryonic germ (cells) / EHBO = eerste hulp bij ongelukken = first aid / EHC = environmental health criteria (WHO) / EHEC = enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (bacteriol.) / EHLNH = eerste hart long neuro hulp (hospital department) / EIA = exercise-induced asthma (rmed.) / eicel see Eizelle / Eichel = glans penis / EIEC = enteroinvasive E. coli (bacteriol.) / Eierschalenverkalkung = eggshell calcification (rad./rmed.) / Eierstock = ovary / eierstok see Eierstock / Eigenblut = autologous blood / Eigengewebe = autologous tissue / Eigenwirkung = intrinsic activity (pharm.) / Eihaut = (foetal) membrane / eileider = Fallopian tube; uterine tube; oviduct / eileiderzwangerschap see Eileiterschwangerschaft / Eileiter see eileider / Eileiterschwangerschaft = tubal pregnancy; Fallopian pregnancy (type of ectopic pregnancy or extrauterine pregnancy) / Einatemvolumen = inspired volume (rmed.) / Einatmung = inspiration (rmed.) / Einbruch = invasion (of adjacent tissues by cancer e.g.); infiltration / einddarm = rectum / eindrückbares Ödem = pitting oedema / eindsynapsen = terminal synapses (neur.) / eineiig see eeneiig / Einengung = constriction; narrowing; stenosis (airway, blood vessel) / einfach resistent = monoresistant (microbiology)Einfarbensehen = monochromatism, see Farbenfehlsichtigkeit / Eingangsstab = entry trocar / beidseits eingedellt = biconcave (erythrocyte e.g.) / eingeschränkt = impaired; reduced (lung function) / Eingeweidebruch = enterocele / Eingriff = operation; surgery; surgical intervention / Einheitsdichte = unit density sphere (dust) / Einlagerungen = 1. plaques (card.); 2. leukonychia (fingernails) / Einleitungsstelle = input point (on human body, of vibration) / Einschießung der Milch = the milk "comes in" (usually on day 3 postpartum) / Einschlafzuckung = sleep start; hypnic jerk / über x Tage einschleichen = increase (dose) incrementally over x days / Einschmelzung = cavitation (rad./rmed.) / Einsekundenkapazität see FEV1 (rmed.) / Einstülpung = invagination / Einteilung = staging (tumours e.g.) / sich einverleiben = incorporate; (cells, of particles) ingest; engulf / Einwachsungen = infiltrations, NB fibrous infiltrations = fibrosis / Einwärtsschielen = cross-eye, see strabisme; Strabismus / Einweg- = disposable (syringe e.g.) / (Klinik-)Einweisung = hospitalisation; admission to hospital / einwuchernd = invasive (tumour) / Einzeladhärenzen der Muskelpfeiler des Zwerchenfells = leafing (or scalloping) of the diaphragm (rad./rmed.) / Einzeldosis = fraction (radiotherapy) / Einzelherd = discrete lesion; discrete nodule (rmed.) / Einzelleistungsvergütung see paiement à l'acte / Einzeller = single-cell organism / einzelsträngig = single-stranded (DNA, RNA) / Einziehung = puckering (skin in breast cancer e.g.) / Eisenlunge = pulmonary siderosis (rmed.) / rote Eisenlunge = siderosis due to Fe2O3 / schwarze Eisenlunge = siderosis due to FeO / Eisenoxydstaub = iron oxide dust (of ferrous or ferric iron, see Eisenlunge) / Eisenstaublunge see Eisenlunge / eiserne Lunge = iron lung; Drinker respirator / Eisprung = ovulation / Eiterbläschen = pustule / eiternd = suppurating / Eitererreger = pyogenic bacterium / eitrig = suppurant; purulent / eiwit = protein / enkelvoudig eiwit = simple protein, see protein / samengesteld eiwit see protein / Eizelle = oocyte; ovum / EK = Ersatzkasse (D) (health insurance) / EKA = Expositionsäquivalent für krebserzeugende Arbeitsstoffe (D) = exposure equivalent (for occupational carcinogens) / EKG = Elektrokardiographie (-gramm) = electrocardiography (-gram) (ECG) / eksteroog see likdoorn) / Ektoparasiten = ectoparasites (vet.) / élaboration = production (of substance by cells) / Elastance = elastance (rmed.) / coefficient d'élasticité pulmonaire = elastance (rmed.) / Elastizität = elasticity (rmed.) / electrocoagulation = diathermy / electron microscope grids / électrochoc = electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) / elektrocauter = electrocautery (surg.) / électrophorèse en champs pulsé see PFGE / élément figuré = formed element (blood) / Elfenbein = dentine / ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay / Elle; ellepijp = ulna; ulnar bone / élongation = traction (orth.) / ELT = euglobulin lysis time (blood) / e.m.; em see extramedian / EMAS = Employment Medical Advisory Service (UK) / embarrure = depressed fracture (skull) / EMBL = European Molecular Biology Laboratory / embolie = embolism (condition of being blocked); embolus (the clot or plug) (rmed. / embrochage = pinning (of fracture, often used synonymously with nailing, though there is a difference: Orthopaedic nails are usually used for permanent intramedullary fixation of fractures of the long bones (femur,humerus, tibia); types include: Enders nail, TENS nail, Küntscher nail, square nail, rush nail. Orthopaedic pins are used for provisional internal fixation to correct soft tissue damage and minimal bone fractures; types include: Steinmann pin, Austin Moore pin, Knowles pin. / embrochage fasciculé = Hackethal bundle nailing (of fractures) / embryo (conception to 2 months) / Embryonalkörperchen = embryoid body / "em-cad" see MCADD / EMCDD = European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (based Lisbon; often shortened to "European Drugs Monitoring Centre) (EU) / EMD = 1. electromechanical dissociation, see PEA ; 2. extramedullary disease (myeloma) / EMEA = European Medicines Agency (based London; founded 1995 under the name "European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products"; renamed "European Medicines Agency" in 2004; acronym remains and is used in the other EU languages) (EU) / EMG = elektromyografie; electromyography (-gram) / empâtement = puffiness; doughiness (texture of flesh in cellulitis e.g.) / Empfänger = receptor (vision) / Empfängnisverhütung = contraception / Emphysem = emphysema / Emphysembronchitis = bronchial emphysema / empreinte = impression / air emprisonné = trapped air (rmed.) / EMU = 1. examen microscopique des urines see ECBU; 2. epidermal melanin unit (derm.) / ENA = extractable nuclear antigen / enarthrose = ball-and-socket joint; spheroidal joint; enarthrosis (orth.) / encephalopathies spongiformes = spongiform encephalopathy / encephalopathie transmissible du vison = transmissible mink encephalopathy (vet.) / encerclage périvasculaire see perivasculaire manchetvorming / enchatonné = retained; incarcerated (placenta) (obst.) / enclenchement = occlusion (dent.) / enclouage = nailing, see notes under embrochage (orth.) / enclume = incus (ear) / encoche = 1. enclosure (of epithelium inside cyst e.g.); 2. scalloping (of bone) (radiol.) / encrassé = dirty, greasy (general); clogged (filter); "furred up" (artery) / Enddarm; endeldarm = rectum / endexspiratorisches Flußvolumen = (forced) end-expiratory flow / Endhirn = telencephalon; endbrain / endocardite bactérienne; bakterielle Endokarditis = bacterial endocarditis (preferred term now infective endorcarditis) / endocardite infectieuse, infektiöse Endokarditis = infective endocarditis / endofuite = endoleak (synonym "perigraft flow") / endommager = damage; compromise / endoprothèse = stent (e.g. cardiol.) / Endorgan = end-organ (neur.) / endoscope: has a working channel (central channel through rigid endoscope), also a biopsy channel / endoscopie bronchique = bronchoscopy / endovaginal = transvaginal / endoveine = tunica intima; inner coat (of vein) / Endpunkt = end level (values on graph e.g.) / exspiratorischer Endpunkt = end-expiratory level (rmed.) / inspiratorischer Endpunkt = end-inspiratory level (rmed.) / Endstrombahn = microvascular bed; terminal vascular bed (blood) / energiedichtheid; Energieflussdichte = energy fluence (mJ/mm2, laser surgery) / engagement de dose = dose commitment / Engelse ziekte; englische Krankheit = rickets / engelure = chilblain; pernio / engourdi = stiff, numb (muscles e.g.) / Engpaßsyndrom = nerve compression syndrome; "trapped nerve" (pop.); impingement syndrome (esp. of shoulder, hip) / enjambement = crossing over (chromosomes) / enkel = ankle; malleolus / enkelstrengig = single-stranded (DNA, RNA) / enkelvork = "mortice" (formed by the malleoli of the fibula and tibia, within which the talus articulates) / enkysté = encysted / ENMG = electroneuromyography (-gram) / énostose, see îlot osseux / enragé = rabid (vet.) / comprimé enrobé = coated tablet (pharm.) / ensellure lombaire = saddle back; abnormal lordosis / ensemencé = seeded (culture) (microbiol.) / ENT = ear, nose and throat / krebsig entarten = become cancerous; show anaplasia / Entartung = degeneration (cells, tissue) / entérocolite nécrosante see NEC / entéropathie exsudative = protein-losing enteropathy / entfernt gelegen = distant / entonnoir = infundibulum (anat.) / thorax en entonnoir = funnel chest / entrainement physique = physical therapy / entstof = vaccine / entwässernd = diuretic / entwickeln (transitive verb) = deliver (obst.) / Entwöhnung = weaning (off an addiction) / entzündungshemmend = anti-inflammatory (drug e.g.) / envelope: "qui constitue une envelope pour ..." = "which invests..." (anat.) / EOCCD = European Organisation for the Control of Circulatory Diseases / EOG = 1. electro-oculography (-gram); 2. electro-olfactography (-gram) / EOPS = exempt d'organismes pathogènes spécifiques, see SPF / EORTC = European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (based Brussels) / EP = 1. erythrocyte protoporphyrin; 2. electrophysiology (catheter e.g.) / épanchement pleural = pleural effusion (rmed.) / épaule bloquée = frozen shoulder / EPC see extrapulsations cardiaques / EPCM = extrapulsations cardiques motrices / EPCT = extrapulsations cardiques thermiques / EPEC = enteropathogenic E. coli (bacteriol.) / éperon trachéale = carina tracheae / EPG = 1. eggs per gram (parasites); 2. électropupillographie (NB references in the EN literature are to "pupillography (-gram)" and "infrared (video) pupillography", never to "electropupillography"...) / épidémie = epidemic; outbreak / epidemiology: "may be defined as the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Whereas the basis of clinical research is the observation of individual patients, epidemiology requires observation of communities of people among whom disease occurs. Historically epidemiology arose out of the study of epidemic diseases such as plague, cholera and scurvy; but its scope has now expanded to include all diseases, irrespective of whether their frequency shows epidemic fluctuations." / unité épidermique de mélanisation, see EMU / anesthésie épidurale = epidural block; epidural anaesthesia / Epilepsieanzeiger = seizure-alert dog / couche de cellules à épine; corps épineux = stratum spinosum; prickle cell layer (epidermis) / Epinephron = adrenal gland; epinephros / épinier = spinal / Epiphyse; épiphyse = 1. epiphysis (bone); 2. pineal body; pineal gland; epiphysis cerebri / epitheellichaampjes = epithelial bodies; parathyroid glands / EPP = equal pressure points (airflow) (rmed.) / épreintes = tenemus; bowel straining / épreuve d'effort = exercise test; exercise tolerance test / épreuve de retournement = roll-over test (gyn./obst.) / EPS = expressed prostatic secretions / épuration pulmonaire = pulmonary clearance / EPV = endocardite sur prothèse valvulaire, see PVE / couronne équatoriale; plaque équatoriale = equatorial plate (genet.) / équilibre acido-basique = acid-base balance (pH; normal= 7.38-7.42) / ER = Emergency Room (synonym AE (A & E) / Erbgang = heredity / Erbgrind = favus; honeycomb ringworm; tinea favosa / Erbgut = genetic material; genetic heritage; genetic make-up; genotype / erbgutverändernd = mutagenic / Erbrochenes = vomit / Erbsenbein = pisiform bone / Erbsensuppenstühle = pea soup stools (typhoid) / ERCP = endoskopische retrograde Cholangio-Pankreatikographie = endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography / Erdbeermal = strawberry mark; strawberry naevus, see haemangioma / ERF = emergency reference levels (rad.) / een erfelijke aanleg = heredity / ERG = electroretinography (-gram) / ergospirométrie = spirometry during exercise / ergothérapie = occupational therapy; ergotherapy / Erguß = 1. effusion (pleural e.g.); 2. ejaculate; ejaculation (sperm) / erhaben = raised (rash e.g.) / Erker = (of acetabulum); knöcherner Erker = bony acetabular rim; knorpeliger Erker = acetabular labrum, acetabular lip; NB the Centrum-Erker-Winkel of Wiberg is called the centre-edge angle (orth.: hip joint) / ERLM = écran radioluminescent à mémoire = imaging plate; image plate (computed radiography) / radiographie par ERLM = computed radiography / Ermüdungsbruch = stress fracture / ernstig acuut luchtwegen syndroom; ernstig acuut ademhalings syndroom, see SARS / erregend = excitatory (neurotransmitter e.g.) / Erreger = (infective e.g.) agent; pathogen; bacterium / Erregungsleitungsstörung = conduction defect (cardiol.) / Erregungsrückbildung = repolarisation (cardiol.) / Ersatzknochen = cartilage bone; replacement bone; substitution bone / Erschütterung = trauma (physical or mental); see also Gehirnerschütterung / Therapie der ersten Wahl = first-line therapy / Erstickungstod = (death by) asphyxiation; suffocation / éruption cutanée = skin rash / ERV = expiratory reserve volume; exspiratorisches Reservevolumen (maximum amount of gas which can be expired from the resting end-expiratory level, the extra expiration available for exercise; normal value ± 1500-1600 ml) (rmed.) / Er:YAG = erbium: ytter aluminium garnet (laser type) / Erysipel = erysipelas; St Anthony's fire (group A streptococci) / ESC = embryonic stem cell; ES cell / ESB = encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine = bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); "mad cow disease" (vet.) / ESBL = extended-spectrum beta lactamase (antiobiotic-resistant 'superbug', esp. form of E. coli) / escarre = (dry) gangrene / escarre de décubitus = pressure sore; decubitus ulcer / escarrotique = escharotic / Esculaapteken; bâton d'Esculape see Aesculapius) / ESG = esophagogastroduodenal transit, syn. "upper endoscopy" / for entries beginning ESO- check also (UK) OESO- / espace mort = dead space (rmed.) / esquinancie (obsol.) = quinsy; tonsillar abcess / ESR = 1. electron spin resonance (spectroscopy); 2. erythrocyte sedimentation rate / essai 90 jours = 90-day assay (tox.) / essai thérapeutique = clinical trial / ESWL = extracorporale Stoßwellenlithotripsie; extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy / ET = 1. échotomographie = ultrasound; ultrasonic scanning; 2. emission tomography / étage thoracique = thoracic floor / etalagebenen; etalageziekte = intermittent claudication; claudicatio intermittens (CVD) / étalonnage interne = standard addition method (calibration, involves "spiking" the sample) / état second = trance; daze (psych.) / en état stable = by the steady state method (lung function testing) / ETEC = enterotoxigenic E. coli (bacteriol.) / étendue = extent (of opacities) (rad./rmed.) / narcose-ether = (anaesthetic) ether; aether pro narcosi (diethyl ether) / étiopathogénie = aetiology and pathogenesis / récepteurs d'étirement pulmonaire = pulmonary strech receptors (rmed.) / ETO = échocardiographie transoesophagienne, see TEE; TOE / EtOH = ethanol / étoilé = star-shaped; stellate / étrier = stapes (auditory ossicle); stirrup (part of pin assembly for fracture fixation) / ETS = 1. emergency temporary standard (USA; OSHA); 2. environmental tobacco smoke ("second-hand smoke", comprising mainstream smoke - exhaled by the smoker - and slipstream smoke, from a smouldering cigarette, pipe, etc.); 3. établissement de transfusion sanguine = blood transfusion centre / ETT = échocardiographie transthoracique see TTE / etterblaasje see Eiterbläschen / etterig see eitrig / ettermeningitis = purulent mengingitis / etterverwekker see Eitererreger / étude cas-témoin = case-control study / étui cutané = skin envelope; skin brassiere (breast surgery) / étuve = incubator (microbiol.); sterilizer (instruments) / EUBS = European Undersea Biomedical Society / EUG = extra-uteriene graviditeit; Extrauteringravidität; extrauterine Gravidität see EUP / EUP = extrauterine pregnancy (synonym ectopic pregnancy) / Europäische Arzneimittel-Agentur see EMEA / Europäisches Zentrum für die Prävention und die Kontrolle von Krankheiten, use EN acronym see ECDC / Europäische Drogenbeobachtungsstelle see EMCDD / Europees Centrum voor ziektepreventie en -bestrijding, use EN acronym see ECDC / Europees Geneesmiddelenbureau see EMEA / EUS = endoscopic ultrasound-guided (e.g. FNA) / euthanisieren = to euthanise / EVA = échelle visuelle analogique, see VASévacuer = drain (abscess) / EVAM = ethyl violet azide medium (microbiol.) / EVB = Erythrozytenverteilungsbreite see RDW / EVC = expiratory vital capacity, see VC (rmed.) / éveiner = strip (veins) / EVK = exspiratorische Vitalkapazität see EVC / évocation = recall (neurol.) / évolutif, évolutive = progressive (condition, disease) / EWK = Einwilligungserklärung = declaration of consent (clinial trials) / diagnosis ex juvantibus = diagnosis based not on symptoms but on the results of treatment / excavé = cavitary (pulmonary lesions in TB, Aids) / exérèse = excision; removal / biopsie-exérèse = excisional biopsy / excès de base = base excess (rmed.) / excimer = excited dimer (laser type) / excitatif = excitatory / exclusion = deferral (suspension of eligibility to donate blood) / excroissance = excrescence (anat.) / Exhairese = stripping; avulsion; phlebectomy (varicose veins) / exigeant see anspruchsvoll / exocol = ectocervix (gyn.) / exonération = evacuation, bowel movement / expectoration = (material) sputum; expectorate; phlegm; (action) sputum production; expectoration / expiratoire één seconde waarde see FEV1 / explorateur = probe (instrument) / exposure-response matrix (tox.) / exprimat prostatique; Prostataexprimat see EPS / Exprimaturin see VB3 / exsangue = exsanguinate; bloodless; anaemic / exsanguinotransfusion = exchange transfusion (blood) / exspiratorische Sekundenkapazität see FEV1 / exspiratorischer Spitzenfluß= peak expiratory flow (rate), see PEF (rmed.) / exsudat cotonneux = cotton-wool exsudate; cotton-wool spot (ophth.) / biopsie extemporané; examen extemporané; étude extemporanée = (analysis of) frozen section, see FS / bilan d'extension = staging (of tumour) / extracardiaque = extracardial / extracorporelle= extracorporeal (circulation) / extramedian = (adj.) non-midline; paramedian (incision, approach) / links/rechts extramedian = to the left/right of the midline (there seems to be no single-word adverb in English) / extrapulsations cardiaques (always plural) = heart rate increase (as % of resting rate or bpm). NB this term is seen in the OSH context of heat stress or heavy physical work, and "extra heartbeats" (see extrasystoleis a false friend here. JJ Vogt defines 2 risk factors which may together constitute an index of heat stress: 1. extrapulsations cardiaques motrices, caused by workload and measured from sweating levels (risk of dehydration); and 2. extrapulsations cardiaques thermiques, caused by high ambient temperatures and/or clothing which dangerously elevate body core temperature measured in mouth or rectum. There seem to be no direct English equivalents. Suggested translations for 1. "workload-modulated HR increase" and for 2. "temperature-modulated HR increase" / extrasystole = premature contraction; ectopic beat; premature beat; extra heartbeat; extrasystole; "palpitations" (card.) / extrasystole ventriculaire see VPB / EZ = Ernährungszustand = nutritional status (NB in phrases such as "in gutem EZ" translate as "(patient) appeared well nourished" )



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