Glossary of Medical Terms, Abbreviations & Symbols
Dutch-English, French-English, German-English


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G = conductance (rmed.) / g.a. = geen afwijkingen, see NAD / GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid / Gabelmücke = Anopheles (mosquito) / GAF = global assessment of functioning (score) / gaine = sheath (nerve, tendon); capsule (thyroid) / galactophore = milk duct; lactiferous duct (gyn.) / galbult = nettelrash; urticaria; hives / gale = scabies; itch / Galen (Greek physician of antiquity): in English the adjectives "galenic", "galenical" relate strictly to Galen or his principles/methods; in other languages galenique, galenisch is defined as relating to the formulation, conservation and presentation of pharmaceuticals. Thus e.g. forme galenique = dosage form; pharmacie galenique; galenische Pharmacie = drug formulation and delivery; Galenische Formulierung = Galenical formulation (process and product); Galenische Herstellung = Galenical manufacturing; Galenical production; Galenical formulation (the process) / galgruis = gall gravel / Galien see Galen / galkoliek = biliary colic; gallstone colic / Gallenblasengang = cystic duct / Gallengang = common bile duct; biliary duct; ductus choledochus / Gallensalze = bile salts / gallertartig = gelatinous / Gallertkern = nucleus pulposus (intervertebral disc) / galsteen = gallstone / GALT = gut-associated lymphoid tissue / ganglion = lymph node / ganglion sentinelle see SLN / ganglions rachidiens see DRG / = ganglionic-blocking; ganglioplegic (drug) / gangmaker = pacemaker (natural or artificial) / Ganzkörperbestrahlung = 1. whole-body exposure; whole-body irradiation (accidental); 2. total body irradiation (therapy) / Ganzkörperknochenszintigramm = bone scan; whole body bone scintigram / Ganzkörperplethysmographie = (whole) body plethysmography / GARD = Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (UN) / de garde = on-call (doctor); duty (pharmacy) / gargarisme = gargle; mouthwash; oral rinse (used diluted or undiluted; see also collutoire) / garrot = tourniquet / Gärungsstuhl = fermentative diarrhoea (E. coli e.g.) / Gasaustausch = gas exchange (rmed.) / gasométrie = spirometry / gastheer = host (parasites) / vertikale Gastroplastik = vertical banded gastroplasty; gastric banding (obesity) / gasuitwisseling see Gasaustausch / gaswisseling see Gasaustausch / gaucherie = left-handedness / Gaumen = palate / Gaumenbein = palatine bone; os palatinum / Gaumenmandel = palatal tonsil; palatine tonsill / Gaumensegel = soft palate; velum palatinum / Gaumenspalte = cleft palate; palatoschisis / gavage = forced feeding; gavage; (therapeutic) superalimentation / GAW = airway conductance (rmed.) / gaz étranger = marker gas, indicator gas; non-resident gas (e.g. helium in lung function tests) / g.b. = geen bezonderheden; geene bevinding see ohne Befund / G-BA = Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss = Federal Joint Committee (DE) / GBE = Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes = Federal Health Monitoring (System) (DE) / GBS = Gottfries-Brane-Steen (the "GBS scale of intellectual function") (geriatric medicine e.g.) / GCP = good clinical practice, see also ICH / GCS = Glasgow coma score (the Glasgow Coma Grade Scale assesses nervous function on a scale of min.3 to max. 15: eyes 1-4, movement 1-6, verbal communication 1-5) / GCSF = granulocyte colony stimulating factor (stem cells) / GdB = Grad der Behinderung = (suggest) degree of handicap; degree of impairment (D health insurance) / Gebärmutter = uterus; womb (gyn.) / Gebärmutterhals = cervix (gyn.) / Gebärmutterhalsabstrich = cervical smear (gyn.) / Gebilde = structure (anat.) / Gebiß; gebit = 1. the teeth; dentition; 2. artificial teeth; false teeth; "dentures" / Geburtshelfer = obstetrician / geburtshilflich = obstetric / Geburtsweg = birth canal (obst.) / gecarboniseerd weefsel = charred tissue, eschar (surg.) / eine gedachte Linie = imaginary line (between anatomical landmarks, usually called just "a line") / gedefocusseerd = defocused (laser beam) / Gedeihstörung = failure to thrive (paediatrics) / geelzucht = jaundice; icterus / gefangene Luft see gefesselte Luft / Gefäß = (blood) vessel; Gefäße (plur.) = blood vessels (collectively); vasculature / Gefäßbett = vascular bed (blood vessels) / gefäßgestielt = pedicled (tissue grafts) / Gefäßhaut = pia mater (brain) / Gefäßknäuel der Niere see glomérule / gefäßreich = highly vascular; richly supplied with blood vessels / gefesselte Luft = trapped air (rmed.) / Geflecht = plexus / Geflechtknochen = cancellous, spongy bone / Gefrierschnitt = frozen section, see FS / Gegenanzeige = contraindication / Gegenfeld = counterfield (radiotherapy) / Gegenspieler = antagonist / gegroefte tabletten = scored tablets; "tablet with a bisect bar; quadrisect bar" (pharm.) / gehemeltespleet see Gaumenspalt / Gehgips see botte plâtrée / Gehirnerschütterung = concussion; commotio cerebri / Gehirnrückenmarksflüssigkeit = cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) / Gehirnschlag = stroke (cerebral, apoplectic) / Gehirnstamm see Stammhirn / Gehirnwindungen = gyri of cerebrum; gyri cerebri / Gehörschützer = ear protectors (muffs or plugs, see GSS & KGS) / geïnnerveerd = innervated / Geißel = flagellum (cells) / Gekröse = mesentery / gélatine = gelatin / gelber Fleck = macula lutea retinae (ophth.) / Gelbsucht see geelzucht / gele lichaampje = corpus luteum (gyn.) / geleiachtig = gelatinous /geleiding = conduction (card.) / Gelenkband = ligament / Gelenkflüßigkeit = synovial fluid / Gelenkfortsatz = articular process / Gelenkkopf = condyle / Gelenkmaus = joint mouse; arthrolith; arthrophyte / Gelenkpfanne see Pfanne / Gelenkscheibe = articular disc; interarticular disc / Gelenkschwamm = fungal arthritis / Gelenkspalt = joint space (anat./rad.) / gemellaire = twin (adj.) / Gendiagnostik = genetic diagnosis / gêne = difficulty (in walking e.g.)Genomik = genomics / Gentests = gene testing; gene tests; genetic testing; genetic tests / génotoxique; gentoxisch = genotoxic (term is often used in conjunction with "mutagenic") / corps genouillé = corpus geniculatum (metathalamus) / GEO = genetically engineered organism / géode sous chondrale = subchondral cyst (osteoarthritis) / gerader = rectus (muscle names) / GERD = gastrooesophageal reflux disease / gerechtelijk geneeskundige laboratorium = forensic medical laboratory / gereflecteerde laserstraling van binnenuit = "flashbacks" of laser light (when aiming beam hits surface of contact lens in probe) / Gerichtsmediziner see Rechtsmediziner / Gerinnsel = thrombus; clot, see blood clot / Gerinnung = coagulation; clotting / Gerippe = skeleton / germ tube dispersion test / Gerstenkorn = stye; hordeolum / gerstekorrel = chalazion; meibomian cyst / Gesamtkammerkomplex = QT interval (card.) / Gesamtrisiko = total risk / Gesamtstreuung = combined profusion (rad./rmed.) / Gesäß = buttocks / Gesäßbacke = gluteus muscle / Geschlechtsumwandlung = sex change / Geschmacksknospen = tastebuds; caliculi gustatorii / Geschwulst = tumour / geschwungene Aorta = displaced aorta / Geschwür = ulcer / Gesichtsrose = erysipelas; St. Anthony's fire / gespleten verhemelte = cleft palate; palatoschisis / gesprungen = released (ovum) / Gestagen = progestational agent; progestogen; gestagen / Gestationshypertonie see PIH / geste see acte chirurgical / gestielt = pedicled, pedunculated (skin graft, polyp) / gestrichen = level (spoonful) (pharm.) / Gesundheit (WHO-Definition, 1946): "die Gesundheit ist ein Zustand vollkommenen physischen, geistigen und sozialen Wohlbefindens und nicht bloß das Fehlen von Krankheit und Gebrechen." (for EN definition see health) / Gesundheitskompetenz (defined: "die Fähigkeit des Einzelnen, im täglichen Leben Entscheidungen zu treffen, die sich positiv auf die Gesundheit auswirken") = health competence, see also PHCS / getüpfelt = pitted (fingernails, in psoriasis e.g.) / GEU = grossesse extra-utérine see EUP / gewebeneutral = histocompatible (grafting) / Gewinnung = harvesting (of cells, eggs) / gewricht = joint; articulation / gewrichtsmuis see Gelenkmaus / gewrichtsvocht = synovial fluid / gezackt = scalloped (ophthal.) / gezichtsstoornis = disturbance of vision / gezichtsveld = visual field; field of vision / gezichtszenuw = optic nerve / gezondheid (WGO definitie, 1946): "Gezondheid is een toestand van volledig lichamelijk, geestelijk en maatschappelijk welzijn en niet slechts de afwesigheid van ziekte of andere lichamelijke gebreken." (for EN definition see health) / gezwel = tumour; growth / GFATM = Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (based Geneva) / GGC = good general condition (patient examination reports) / GGGD; GG & GD; GG en GD = Gemeentelijk Geneeskundige en Gezondheidsdienst (NL) = (suggest) Municipal Health Service / GGO = genetisch gemodificeerd organisme = genetically modified organism (GMO) / GGT = gamma-glutamyl transferase / GGZ = geestelijke gezondheidszorg = psychiatric care / GI = gastro-intestinal / Giemen see notes under adventitious breath sounds / Gießersilikose = foundryman's lung (rmed.) / "Gießkannenschimmel" = aspergillus / GIFT = gamete intrafallopian transfer (fertility) / Giftstoff = poison; toxic substance; toxicant; toxin (see toxicant, toxin) / Gipsbinde = plaster bandage (fractures) / Gipsverband = plaster cast (fractures) / gîte = breeding site (mosquitoes e.g.) / GK = Ganzkörper- = whole-body (imaging, e.g.) / GKS = Ganzkörperschwingungen, see WBV / GKV = Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung = statutory health insurance / glad = smooth (muscle) / glaire = mucus / glasachtig lichaam see Glaskörper / Glasknochen = osteogenesis imperfecta; osteopsathyrosis (genetic defect, not to be confused with the "brittle bones" of osteoporosis) / Glaskörper = vitreous body; vitreous humour (eye) / glass ionomer cement (dentistry: filling material) / glatt see glad / Glatze = bald spot; bald pate (head hair) / GLDH = Glutamatdehydrogenase; glutamate dehydrogenase / gleichaltrige Bevölkerung = age-matched population / Gleichwertigkeitsprüfung = equivalence assessment (pharmacists, DE) / Gleitbruch = sliding hernia (inguinal) / Gleitgewebe = ligaments / Gliazelle = glial cell; neuroglial cell / glie = neuroglia; glia / Glied = 1. (gen. anat.) limb; member; 2. penis / Gliederfüßler = arthropod / globe oculaire = eyeball / glomérule rénale = renal glomerulus; Malpighian tuft; Malpighian body / Glotzauge = exophthalmos (thyroid disorder e.g.) / Glover = bulldog clamp (surg.) / glycerol = glycerol (metabolism); glycerin (in pharm. preparations) / GMAG = Genetic Manipulation Advisory Group (UK) / GMC = General Medical Council (UK regulatory body which, e.g. takes decisions to suspend a doctor or strike him off the Medical Register)) / GMD = Gemeenschappelijke Medische Dienst = Joint Medical Service (advises on occupational medical insurance claims) (NL) / GMO = genetically modified organism / Gneis (obsol.) = seborrhoeic dermatitis; seborrhoeic eczema / godet = pit; pockmark (e.g. acne); pit (pressure indentation in oedema) / corps godronné = gyrus dentatus (brain) / goedaardig = benign; non-malignant (tumour) / goitre plongeant = substernal goitre; intrathoracic goitre / gomme = gumma (lesion of tertiary syphilis) / gonflement abdominal = abdominal distension / gordelroos = herpes zoster; shingles / gorgelmiddel see Gurgellösung / GOT = glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase / gouddamp = gold vapour (laser type) / gourme = impetigo (derm.); teething rash (paed.) / gouttière = 1. groove; notch (in bone, e.g. gouttière bicipitale = bicipital groove; gouttière paravertébrale = vertebral groove); 2. SAM splint (padded aluminium strip, cut to size and bent into U shape to cradle injured limb) / GP = general practitioner / GPA = gestation par autrui = surrogacy / G6Pase = glucose 6 phosphatase / G3PDH = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase / GPT = 1. glutamic pyruvic transaminase; 2. glycerophosphatase / Gpt/l (blood: G = giga; pt = platelets; l = litre; ("platelet counts of less than ... Giga/l") / G-Punkt = "G-spot" (erogenous zones) / graad = degree (card.: heart block) / grabataire = bedridden / Grabmilbe = burrowing mite; Sarcoptes / Gräfenberg-Punkt see G-Punkt / grand dorsal = latissimus dorsi (muscle) / grand os = capitate bone; os capitatum; os magnum (hand) / grand rond = teres major (muscle) / granule = granule (in blood platelets) / granulométrie = particle size measurement; granulometry (rmed., dust) / distribution granulométrique = particle size distribution (rmed., dust) / GRAS = generally regarded as safe (drugs taken by sportsmen) (USA: FDA) / gravimetrisch = gravimetric; (of, pertaining to) particle size (rmed., dust) / greffe =  1. transplant (organ); graft (tissue); 2. settling on; lodging on; 3. seeding; metastasis (cancer) / greffes carcinomateuses = tumour cell seeding; port-site metastases (keyhole surgery); needle track seeding (needle biopsy) / greffon = donor organ, graft organ / intestin grêle = small intestine / (image) en grelot = air meniscus (radiol.) / grensstreng; Grenzstrang = sympathetic trunk; truncus sympathicus (nerves) / Grenzwert see notes under valeur; often means just "maximum"GRF glue = gelatin-resorcin-formalin glue (biological glue) / GRID syndrome = gay-related immunodeficiency syndrome (obsol., see AIDS) / griep = influenza; 'flu / orteil en griffe = hammer toe / maladie des griffes de chat = cat scratch fever / gril costal = ribcage / grillage; grillagé, see treillis / Grimmdarm = colon / Grind = scab (derm.) / GRM = gallop, rub, murmur (card.) / grob = coarse (lung opacity) (rad./rmed.) / grobblasiges Rasselgeräusch see notes under adventitious breath sounds / grobe Kraft = gross strength / Grobstaub = coarse dust (rmed.) / groeischijf = growth plate; epiphyseal plate; epiphyseal cartilage / grondfstofwisseling see Grundstoffwechsel / gros; grosse = coarse (lung opacity e.g.) (rad./rmed.) / große Anatomie = gross anatomy / Großhirn = cerebrum / Großhirnrinde = cerebral cortex / Großlabor = pathology laboratory; pathology department (in a hospital e.g., contrast kleines Labor) / grossesse gémellaire = twin gestation; twin pregnancy / grossesse nerveuse = phantom pregnancy; nervous pregnancy / grossier = coarse (structure) / Grubenstaub = mine dust (rmed.) / Grubenwurm = European hookworm; Old World hookworm; Ancylostoma duodenale / Grund- und Deckplatten = (vertebral) endplates: EN mostly refers to them collectively as "endplates", only specifying inferior or superior where necessary. Where Grund- und Deckplatten means the inferior endplate of one vertebra and the superior endplate of the one below it, authors often refer to "adjacent endplates" / Grundstoffwechsel = basal metabolism (see also BMR) / Grundumsatz see Grundstoffwechsel / Grünholzbruch = greenstick fracture / Grützbeutel see Atherom 2. / "trou de gruyère" = emphysematous bulla (rmed.) / GSD = genetically safe dose / GSH = glutathione (reduced form) / GSS = Gehörschutzstölpsel = ear plugs (OSH) / GSV = geat saphenous vein, see LSV / GT = Glutamyltransferase; glutamyl transferase / GTN = glyceryl trinitrate (angina drug) / GTV = gross tumour volume (radiography) / GTX = gonyautoxin / GU = genitourinary / gueule de loup = bilateral cleft lip; double harelip; (with cleft of jaw and palate too) cheilognathopalatoschisis / remboursement "à guichets ouverts" = (definition: any doctor providing treatment or care is reimbursed automatically by the health insurer, without needing to be on a list of approved practitioners) / GUM = genito-urinary medicine / gummeus = gummatous (syphilis) / ombres de Gümprecht = smudge cells (leukaemia) / Gurgelkonzentrat = (concentrated) oral rinse; mouthwash; gargle (sometimes called a collutory) / Gurgellösung = gargle; mouthwash; oral rinse / Gürtelrose see gordelroos / Gus = conductance of upstream airway segment (rmed.) / gutartig see goedaardig / GvH = graft versus host / GVO = 1. gentechnisch veränderter Organismus see GMO; 2. gezondheidsvoorlichting en -opvoeding = health information and training (NL/EU) / GVS = 1. Geneesmiddelenvergoedingssysteem = Medicines Reimbursement System (NL); 2. grande veine saphène, see LSV / GWS = Gulf War syndrome (post-1991) / Gy = Gray (SI unit) /


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