Glossary of Social Security, Health Insurance & Pensions

German - English
French - English

FR and DE entries refer to bodies, laws etc. in France and Germany unless indicated otherwise.
AU = Austria; CH = Switzerland; EU = European Union

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F r e n c h  /  G e r m a n E n gl i s h  N o t e s
abhängige Beschäftigung employment; payroll employment (as opposed to self-employment)
adhérent enrolee (pension or health care plan)
affection de longue durée (ALD) long-term (medical) condition
allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse (AOK) local health insurance fund
allocation adulte handicapé (AAH)  disability living allowance
allocations pour perte de gain (APG) allowances for loss of earned income (CH)
Alters- und Hinterlassenenversicherung (AHV) Old Age and Survivors’ Insurance (CH)
Altersteilzeit part-time working for older employees (they work 50%, either in continuous periods or in "blocks" of time)
Altersgrenzenpolitik policy on retirement age
Altersquotient elderly dependency ratio (proportion of pensioners to total working population)
Altersvorsorge retirement provision
Anrechnungszeiten qualifying periods; periods credited; periods which count
antisélection antiselection (defined: "The tendency of persons presenting a poorer-than-average risk to apply for, or continue, insurance to a greater extent than persons with average or better-than-average expectations of loss. Also called adverse selection or selection against the insurer.")
AOK Bundesverband Federal Association of Local Health Insurance Funds
arbeitnehmerähnliche Selbstständige self-employed persons with quasi-employee status
Arbeitsbeschaffungsmassnahmen (ABM) job creation schemes
Arbeitsverhältnis employment relationship
Arbeitszeitkonto work time account
ascendants à charge dependent parents and other relatives
assistante maternelle childminder
Association Européenne des Institutions de Protection Sociale Paritaires (AEIP) European Association of Paritarian Institutions of Social Protection (???)   (based Brussels)
Association Internationale de la Sécurité Sociale (AISS) International Social Security Association (ISSA) (based Geneva)
Association suisse des institutions de prévoyance (ASIP) Swiss Pension Funds Association
assurance maladie complémentaire de base (AMCB) "basic" complementary health insurance
assurance maladie obligatoire (AMO) mandatory health insurance
Assurance Vieillesse et Survivants (AVS) see AHV
ATP Supplementary Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (Denmark)
atypique "atypical" (worker, employment)
au premier euro (franc, etc) no-excess (insurance cover)
aufstocken top up (contributions)
Assurance vieillesse, survivants (AVS) old-age and survivors' insurance (CH)
Basisversorgung basic provision; subsistence provision
Beamtenversorgung Civil Service Pension Scheme
bedarfsgeprüfte Leistung means-tested benefit
Beitragsrendite contribution yield
Berufliche Vorsorgegesetz (BVG) Occupational Pensions Act (CH)
Berufsgenossenschaft (BG) occupational accident insurance fund
Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gastgewerbe (BGN) Occupational Accident Insurance Fund for the Food and Hospitality Industry (suggest)
beschäftigungspolitische Leitlinien see Guidelines for Employment (EU)
bestandserhaltender Niveau 1. sustainable level
2. replacement rate
1. economic growth
2. population
betriebliche Altersversorgung (baV) occupational pensions (as concept)
Betriebskrankenkasse (BKK) company health insurance fund
BKK Bundesverband
Federal Association of Company Health Insurance Funds
(superseded Jan. 2013 by the BKK Dachverband)
BKK Dachverband (BKK DV)
Umbrella Association of Company Health Insurance Funds
(suggested translation: from 2013 represents all German BKKs )
Blockmodell block release mode (training, "Altersteilzeit")
Bruttoanpassung calculation based on gross earnings (of pension)
Bruttorentenniveau gross pension replacement rate
Bundesamt für Sozialversicherung (BSV) Federal Social Insurance Office  (CH)
Bundesanstalt für Arbeit (BA; BfA) Federal Employment Service
Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz (BEEG) Federal Parental Benefit and Parental Leave Act  (from 2007)
Bundesgesetz über die Invalidenversicherung (IVG) see LAI (CH)
Bundesgesetz über die Krankenversicherung (KVG) see LAmal (CH)
Bundesversicherungsamt (BVA) Federal Insurance Office
Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte (BfA) Federal Insurance Institute for Salaried Employees
Bureau International du Travail (BIT) see International Labour Office
Bürgerentlastungsgesetz 'Citizens' Relief Act' Law on Improved Tax Deductions for Social Insurance  Contributions
Bürgerversicherung universal insurance
Caisse (nationale) des allocations familiales (National) Family Allowances Fund
capitalisation, fonds de 1. capital appreciation fund 
2. cash accumulation fund
1. pensions
2. insurance
capitalisation, régime en see Kapitaldeckungsverfahren
carte européenne d'assurance maladie see EHIC
complément de libre choix d’activité supplement to finance time off work
complément de libre choix du mode de garde supplement for the purchase of childcare
compression d’effectifs (staff) retrenchment; staff cuts
concubin cohabiting partner
contrat d'adhésion contract of enrolment (pensions)
contrat collectif d’entreprise employer-sponsored group contract
contrat au forfait managed care (plan) (health care)
contributions d’ouverture de droit (COD) qualifying contributions
couverture d'entreprise employer-sponsored cover (insurance, group polices e.g.)
couverture maladie généralisée (CMG) general health cover
couverture de maladie universelle (CMU) universal health cover
déduction de coordination "coordination deduction" (that portion of salary which does not have to be insured under the LPP/BVG (effectively = the maximum statutory retirement pension) (CH)
délai d'acquisition vesting period (length of time in pension scheme before member acquires any rights)
dépassements d’honoraires amount charged by sector 2 (private) physicians in excess of the rate reimbursed by social security; the jargon seems to talk about "balance billing, to balance-bill"…
dépermanisation switch (change, move) from permanent to non-permanent employment
déremboursement removal (of items) from the reimbursable list (of charges for health care: suggested translation)
Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) German Statutory Accident Insurance
Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (DGB) German Trade Union Federation
Deutsches Netzwerk für Betriebiche Gesundheitsförderung (DNBGF) German Network for Workplace Health Promotion
Deutsche Rentenversicherung see DRV
Directive 98/49/CE du Conseil, du 29 juin 1998, relative à la sauvegarde des droits à pension complémentaire des travailleurs salariés et non-salariés qui se déplacent à l'intérieur de la Communauté Council Directive 98/49/EC of 29 June 1998 on safeguarding the supplementary pension rights of employed and self-employed persons moving within the Community (EU)
Direktversicherung direct insurance
diskontinuierlich "discontinuous"; irregular  (employment)
DRV (Deutsche Rentenversicherung) German Pension Insurance (the statutory scheme)
DRV Bund
German Pension Insurance Federal Institution
(the national agency since 2005, formed by amalgamation of the BfA and VDR); system is  administered centrally and at Land level, so e.g. DRV Schwaben “German Pension Insurance Swabia”
DRV Knappschaft-Bahn-See
German Pension Insurance Institution for Miners, Railway Workers and Seamen
Datenstelle der Rentenversicherung (DSRV) Data Processing Centre of the German pension insurance institutions (administered by DRV Bund
Durchführungsweg (pension financing) vehicle
EHIC European Health Insurance Card ("smart" card, replaced old paper E111)
"Eingliederung vor Rente" see "Rehabilitation vor Rente"
Eingliederungszuschuss integration subsidy
EFRP European Federation for Retirement Provision (based Brussels)
einschichtig single-pillar (pension system)
Elterngeld parental benefit
Elternzeit paraental leave
emploi de droit commun "real" job
Entgeldsicherung net wage guarantee
Entgeltumwandlung "deferred compensation" (right to have part of earnings paid into a pension by employer)
Ersatzkassen “substitute funds” (originally designed for white-collar higher earners, distinguished from “primary” funds for blue-collar workers)
Ersatzzeit notional period (contributions not paid, whilst ill, unemployed etc.) but credited as if paid)
Erstattungsbetragsverhandlung (EBV) reimbursement price negotiation (with health insurer)
Erwerbsbiographie 1. employment record
2. (pension) contribution record
Erwerbsersatz see "allocations pour perte de gain" (APG)
Erwerbsgesellschaft work society
Erwerbsquote employment ratio
Erziehungsgeld child-raising benefit
établissement médico-social (EMS) a "home" (formerly an old-people's home, now any facility providing institutional care – named in the LAMal) (CH)

Europäische Krankenversicherungskarte

see EHIC
fidélisation 1. staff retention
2. loyalty
l. policy
2. bonus e.g.
fiscaliseren to give (a social benefit( as a tax credit (NL)
fondation collective de prévoyance group pension scheme (CH)
fonds de réserve des retraites retirement reserve fund
forfait hospitalier inpatient per diem
Forum européen des pensions European Pensions Forum   (EU)
Forum européen  de santé European Health Forum  (EU)
frais en nature in-kind costs
franchise deductible; excess (insurance)
"50plus – die können es!" "We’re 50 plus – YOU need US!" (Bundesanstalt für Arbeit programme: suggested translation)
gemeinschaftliche Verrechnung 1. (social/community) risk-pooling
2. community financing
1. concept
2. concept or action
Gemeinschaftsfonds community fund (health insurance: by analogy with the concept of "community financing")
Generationenvertrag contract between the generations (i.e. we fund our parents' retirement in the expectation that our children will fund ours)
geringfügige Beschäftigung "little" job(s)
Gesellschaft für empirische soziologische Forschung e.V. Association for Empirical Sociological Research (suggested translation)
Gesellschaft für Reha-Wissenschaften e.V. (GfR) Association for Rehabilitation Science
Gesellschaft für Versicherungswissenschaft e.V. (GVG) Association for Social Insurance Research and Policy
Gesetz zum Erziehungsgeld und zum Erziehungsurlaub (Bundeserziehungsgeldgesetz – BErzGG) Federal Act on Child-Raising Allowances and Parental Leave In 2004 Erziehungsurlaub was replaced by Elternzeit, EN title ?“Federal Child-Raising Allowances Act”. From 2007 see"BEEG"
Gesetz zur Organisationsreform in der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung
Statutory Pension Insurance Reform Act (2004)
Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung (GKV) statutory health insurance
National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds
Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung (GRV) statutory pension insurance; statutory pension scheme
Grundsicherung 1. basic provision; basic cover
2. basic pension
1. concept
2. scheme
Hauptverband der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger Federation of Austrian Social Insurance Institutions  (AU)
Haute Autorité de Santé Health Authority
Haut Comité de la Santé Publique Public Health Committee
HMO health maintenance organisation (managed care in USA)
impôt négatif tax credit
impotent, allocation pour care allowance (for special needs children, the elderly, etc.) (CH)
indemnité journalière per diem benefit (health insurance)
IPA independent practice association (a practice able to conclude contracts with more than one HMO and also treat group or private patients) (USA)
"indigent valide" the "healthy poor" (19th century concept)
Individualkonto personal savings account (health insurance)
informations nominatives named-patient information
Innungskrankenkasse (IKK) guild health insurance fund
Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) Institute for Employment Researc
Institution paritaire européenne de protection sociale ??? Joint European Institution for Social Protection (suggested translation)
institution de retraite professionnelle (IRP) institution for retirement provision
interentreprise multi-employer  (pension plan e.g.)
Internationales Arbeitsamt (IAB) International Labour Office (ILO) (based Geneva; acts as secretariat for the International Labour Organisation)
Internationale Arbeitsorganisation (IAO or ILO) International Labour Organisation (ILO) (based Geneva)
Internationale Vereinigung für Soziale Sicherheit (IVSS) International Social Security Association (ISSA) (based Geneva)
interprofessionnel multi-sector (agreements on pensions, e.g.)

Kapitaldeckungsverfahren (KDV) 

funded scheme; money-purchase scheme; personal pension (pensions: the contributor pays into a "pot" which is for him alone. Thus he benefits in direct proportion to what he has paid in; none of the capital goes towards funding anyone else. It is in effect a "private" pension. Contrast Umlagefinanzierungsverfahren)
Kindergeld child benefit

see déduction de coordination

using the mechanism of reimbursement  (of healthcare costs, as opposed to the provision of services billed direct to the insurer)
Krankenversicherungsbeitragsanteil-Ermittlungsverordnung (KVBEVO Order on the calculation of partial relief on health insurance contributions
ländliche genossenschaftliche medizinische Betreuung (LGMB) rural cooperative medical scheme or system (RCMS) (China)
Leiharbeit temporary work; agency work (governed by the Arbeitenehmerüberlassungsgesetz ANÜG; often syn. with "Zeitarbeit")
Leistung und Gegenleistung performance and counterconsideration
Lignes directrices pour l'emploi Guidelines for employment  (decreed at Luxembourg European Council on employment of  20-21 November 1997; formalised in Article 109q of the Amsterdam Treaty) (EU)
Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-invalidité (LAI) Federal Invalidity Insurance Act  (CH)
Loi fédérale sur l’assurance-maladie (LAMal) Federal Health Insurance Act (CH)
Loi fédérale sur la prévoyance professionnelle (LPP) see BVG
loi de financement de la sécurité sociale pour l’année [x] Social Security Funding Act for [year x]
Mannheimer Forschungsinstitut für Ökonomie und demographischen Wandel (MEA) Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging (German uses the EN acronym)
mehrschichtig multi-pillar  (pension system)
méthode ouvert de coopération (MOC) open cooperation method  (EU)
Ministère de la Santé, de la Famille et des Personnes Handicapées Ministry of Health, Family and People with Disabiliti
mobilité switching (between insurers)
mutualisation du risque risk pooling (insurance)
mutualité européenne European mutual society (EU)
nachrangig second-tier (benefit)
Nationalforschungsprogramm (NFP) National Research Programme  (CH)
Nettoanpassung calculation based on net earnings (of pension)
Nettorentenniveau net pension level
nomadisme médical "doctor-shopping" (FR definition: "recours consécutif à plusieurs médecins".
NB not the same as "medical tourism" which means going abroad to get treatment. "Medical nomadism" is translation-ese from  FR texts.)
obligation alimentaire (obligation to pay) maintenance
œuvre sociale social undertakings (various services traditionally provided by the mutuelles, not the same as social security or welfare)
Office federal des assurances sociales (OFAS)

see BSV 

Organisation autonome nationale de l’industrie et du commerce (ORGANIC)

National independent organisation for trade and industry

 (to Jan. 2006, superseded by the RSI

Organisation internationale du travail (OIT) see International Labour Organisation
organisme complémentaire d’assurance maladie (OCAM) private complementary health insurer
paiement à l'acte fee-for-service (health care remuneration)
parcours de retour au travail pathways back to work
passager clandestin free rider
pension de réversion survivor's pension; widow's pension
périodes validées qualifying periods  (contributions)
"pillars" (pensions: 1st pillar = state scheme; 2nd pillar = occupational schemes; 3rd pillar = personal pensions) CHECK?
plan d’épargne interentreprises (PEI) multi-employer savings plan
plan partenarial d’épargne salariale volontaire (PPESV) voluntary partnership plan for employee savings (FR, introduced 19/2/01, superseded by PPESVR)
plan partenarial d’épargne salariale volontaire retraite (PPESVR) voluntary partnership plan for employee retirement savings (introduced 21/8/03)
portabilité des droits portability of entitlements
PPO preferred provider organization  (USA)
précarité medical indigence (no insurance)
au premier euro reimbursement "from the first euro"  (of medical costs)
la prestation d’accueil du jeune enfant (PAJE) young children’s early days benefit
prévoyance provident insurance (defined as insurance of all social risks: death, maternity, illness/disability, unemployment, long-term care)
prime à la naissance childbirth payment
Programme national de recherche (PNR)

see NFP

"la réadaptation prime la rente"  see Rehabilitation vor Rente
recouvrement collection (of contributions, e.g.)
Regelaltersrente standard old age pension
Regelbedarf standard subsistence requirement Words beginning with Regel- (Regelleistung, Regelsatz) refer to this requirement and the benefits paid
Régime social des indépendants (RSI) Self-employment insurance scheme (2006-2018; suggested translation)
Règlement (CEE) n° 1408/71 du Conseil, du 14 juin 1971, relatif à l'application des régimes de sécurité sociale aux travailleurs salariés et à leur famille qui se déplacent à l'intérieur de la Communauté Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71 of the Council  of 14 June 1971 on the application of social security schemes to employed persons and their families moving within the Community (EU)
regulär normal (retirement age)
"Rehabilitation vor Rente" "rehabilitation, with pension as last resort" (a specifically Swiss catchphrase) (CH)
rente If necessary to distinguish it from a retirement pension (occupational accident e.g.), call it an 'annuity'
Rentenversicherung pension(s) insurance; retirement insurance; old age insurance
Rentenversicherungs-Altersanpassungsgesetz  (RVAGAnpG) Retirement Age Adjustment Act (20 April 2007)
répartition, régime en see Umlagefinanzierungsverfahren
Réseau international des contrôleurs et surveillants de pensions (INPRS)  International Network of Pensions Regulators and Supervisors (INPRS) (OECD)
résident de manière stable et régulière habitually resident; normally resident (eligibility for benefits)
ressources means
attribuer sur des conditions de ressources
to means-test
retraite chapeau top-up pension scheme
revenu minimum d’activité (RMA) minimum employment income (adjunct to RMI, 2004
revenu minimum d'insertion (RMI) minimum income support;
revenus de remplacement pensions and benefits
Richtlinie 98/49/EG des Rates vom 29. Juni 1998 zur Wahrung ergänzender Rentenansprüche von Arbeitnehmern und Selbständigen, die innerhalb der Europäischen Gemeinschaft zu- und abwandern see Council Directive 98/49/EC (EU)
risque moral aléa mora moral hazard
risque moral de première espèce
ex ante moral hazard
risqué moral de deuxième espèce
ex post moral hazard
Sachverständigenrat Council of Economic Experts
"Scheinselbständige" quasi self-employed persons
Schweizerischer Pensionskassenverband see ASIP  (German-speaking Switzerland uses the FR acronym)
Selbstbeteiligung co-payment  (health insurance)
Selbstverwaltungsorgane self-governing bodies  (health insurance funds)
Smet: "emploi Smet" "Smet jobs" (subsidised employment, named after Belgian MEP)
soins prépayés repaid care
sous condition de ressources if income is below a specified ceiling (eligibility for various benefits)
Sozialbeirat Social Advisory Council
sozialer Ausgleich social equalisation
Sozialhilfe social assistance
soziale Mindessicherung  minimum social security
der Sozialversicherungspflicht unterliegen to be contributory (employment e.g.)
steuerlich given as a tax credit (benefit)
Strukturanpassungsmaßnahme (SAM) structural adjustment measure
surobligatoire, domaine (excess part of insurance, e.g. optional private insurance on top of statutory basic cover) (CH)
taux de sécurité démarchandisée (TSD) decommodified security ratio (DSR)  (Georges Menahem)
à taux bonifiés  concessionary-interest (loans)
ticket modérateur co-payment; patient's out-of-pocket expenses (patient's share of health costs not reimbursed by social security or other health insurer)
ticket modérateur d'ordre publique (TMOP) A ticket modérateur not allowed by law to be reimbursed by any (private) provider at all (the idea being that allowing this would encourage excessive take-up of health costs and push up total health spending, whilst making the patient pay some out-of-pocket expenses makes him show "solidarity" with the state system.)

tiers payant

(system of) direct settlement FR defined: système de remboursement accepté par les professionnels de santé (hôpitaux, pharmacies, centres de soins…) qui évite aux adhérents de faire l’avance totale ou partielle des frais de santé
Träger provider (of insurance, pension)
traitement indiciaire grade-related salary (civil service e.g.); reference salary
Transferleistungen  ("Transferleistungen sind direkt vom Staat gezahlte Sozialleistungen, ohne dass dafür vorab Beiträge gezahlt oder andere Gegenleistungen erbracht worden wären.
Im Gegensatz dazu gibt es Sozialleistungen, die von der Sozialversicherung auf Grund gezahlter Beiträge gewährt werden, z.B. Arbeitslosengeld, Krankengeld usw.
Neben Sozialleistungen gibt es weitere Zahlungen des Staates an private Haushalte und Unternehmen, die so genannten Transfers, die das verfügbare Einkommen der Empfänger erhöhen (Kindergeld, Baugeld usw.)."
universal benefits
überobligatorisch see surobligatoire
Umlagefinanzierungsverfahren (ULV) pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system (social security: usually a state-run system, whereby statutory contributions paid by those in work are adjusted periodically to ensure a big enough "pot" to fund everybody, including non-contributors and those in need. System is problematic if unemployment is high and the population is ageing. Contrast Kapitaldeckungsverfahren (KDV)
unstet irregular (employment)
unterhaltsverpflichtete Kinder Defined: children responsible in law for caring for e.g. an elderly parent. Old people often did not claim benefit (and were poor) because the law required these "children" to disclose their earnings.. (cf. "verschämte Armut".)
Verband Deutscher Rentenversicherungsträger (VDR) Federation of German Pension Insurance Institutions
Verband der Ersatzkassen (vdek) Health Insurance Alliance; Association of Substitute Health Funds
verbeitragt credited (pension contributions)
Verordnung (EWG) Nr. 1408/71 des Rates vom 14. Juni 1971 zur Anwendung der Systeme der sozialen Sicherheit auf Arbeitnehmer und deren Familien, die innerhalb der Gemeinschaft zu- und abwandern see Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71
"verschämte Armut" "the shamefaced poor"
Versicherungsbiographie contribution record
versicherungsfremde Leistungen non-pension benefit
Versicherungsjahre contribution years
Versicherungslücken gaps in contribution record
versicherungspflichtig contributory  (employment)
Verwaltngsberufsgenossenschaft (VBG) Berufsgenossenschaft for Administrative Employees (includes accident prevention)
Vollzeitintensität level of full-time work
vorrangig higher-tier (benefit)
Vorsorge see prévoyance
Wahltarif health care package option (state-run statutory health insurance scheme)
Zeitarbeit see Leiharbeit
Zinseszins reinvested interest; reinvestment of interest (in pension schemes; otherwise "compound interest")
Zusatzrente supplementary pension
Zusatztarif (tariff for) top-up benefits  (private health insurance)

Created by Alison Gaunt
Last updated: 27 March 2020  
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