Bird Flu Glossary   snow goose

Glossaire de la grippe aviaire / Glossar der Vogelgrippe / Glossarium van de vogelgriep

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Alison Gaunt.

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adaptive mutation mutation adaptive adaptive Mutation adaptieve mutatie
AI see avian influenza IA voir influenza aviaire AI siehe avaiäre Influenza
AI  zie aviaire influenza
allantoic fluid liquide allantoïque Allantoisflüssigkeit allantoisvloeistof
amantadine (antiviral)
amantadine Amantadine amantadine
antibody titre (to virus) titre d'anticorps Antikörpertiter antistoffentiter
antigen drift Antigen-Drift antigene drift
antigen shift cassure antigénique
APBs: animal by-products (not intended for human consumption) sous-produits d'origine animale; sous-produits animaux Nebenprodukte tierischen Ursprungs; tierische Nebenprodukte dierlijke bijproducten; bijproducten van dierlijke oorsprong
APHA: Animal and Plant Health Agency (UK, from 2014)
avian influenza (AI); avian flu; 'bird flu': in scientific writing 'avian' rather than 'bird' seems to be the preferred term; earlier terms such as 'fowl plague, fowl pest' are now largely obsolete. influenza aviaire; grippe aviaire; grippe avienne; grippe du poulet
aviäre Influenza;Vogelgrippe; (klassische) Geflügelpest aviaire influenza; vogelgriep; vogelpest; kippenpest
avian influenza virus(-es) (several)
virus de la grippe aviaire Vogelgrippevirus(-viren) aviair influenzavirus(-virussen)
BEIC: British Egg Industry Council (UK)
biosecurity biosécurité Biosicherheit bioveiligheid
bird flu see avian influenza.
bird-to-human transmission transmission à l'homme; transmission aux humains Tier-zu-Mensch-Übertragung overdracht van dier op mens
backyard flock troupeau de basse-cour; élévage de basse-cour; petit élévage Hinterhofhaltung hobbypluimveehouderij
boot dip (often in the form of a mat); foot bath pédiluve (as noun); tapis pédiluve; bac pédiluve Desinfektionsmatte; Desinfektionswanne ontsmettingsbak; ontsmettingsmat; voetbad
BPL: British Poultry Council (UK)
capsid (outer shell of virus) capside Kapsid capside
carrier porteur Träger drager
cloaca: in birds, the single posterior vent forming the opening of the intestinal & genitourinary tracts. cloaque Kloake cloaca
cloacal swab écouvillon cloacal Kloakenabstrich swabname van de cloaca
cluster (e.g. family cluster, local cluster)
groupe de cas; foyer
Cluster;  Krankheitsherd cluster
comb and wattles crête et barbillons Kopfanhänge (seems to be used more than Kamm and Kehllappen individually) kam en lellen
contagieux ansteckend
contaminated contaminé verseucht besmet
control (of AI...) lutte (contre...) Bekämpfung (der...) bestrijding (van...)
Council Directive 2005/94/EC of 20 December 2005 on Community measures for the control of avian influenza and repealing Directive 92/40/EEC Directive 2005/94/CE du Conseil du 20 décembre 2005 concernant des mesures communautaires de lutte contre l'influenza aviaire et abrogeant la directive
Richtlinie 2005/94/EG des Rates vom 20. Dezember 2005 mit Gemeinschaftsmaßnahmen zur Bekämpfung der Aviären Influenza und zur Aufhebung der
Richtlinie 92/40/EWG
Richtlijn 2005/94/EG van de Raad van 20 decembre 2005 betreffende communautaire maatregelen ter bestrijding van aviaire influenza en tot intrekking van
Richtlijn 92/40/EEG
cross species; cross the species barrier francher la barrière d'espèces die Artbarriere überschreiten de soortbarriere overschrijden
cross-contamination contamination croisée Querkontaminierung kruisbesmetting
cull (livestock) abattre; éliminer schlachten ruimen; keulen
culling (livestock) abattage; cueillage Schlachtung ruiming
DIVA strategy (DIVA: "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals") stratégie DIVA DIVA-Strategie DIVA strategie
DNA sequencing séquencement de l'ADN DNA-Sequenzierung DNA-sequencering
droppings (poultry) fientes; déjections Kot
droplet precautions (for medical personnel, to prevent virus droplets from coming into contact with mucosa of nose, mouth AND eyes): optimum precautions for bird flu are a respirator (e.g. FFP3, or US standard N99) with face shield or eye protection; a simple surgical mask is not adequate.
précautions 'gouttelettes': appareil de protection respiratoire FFP3 + visière; une simple masque médicale ne suffit pas. Atemschutz (FFP3) + Augenschutz (eng anliegende Schutzbrille), oder Vollmaske FFP3; normale OP-Maske reicht nicht aus.
ademshalingsbescherming (FFP3 masker) + oogenbescherming, of volgelaatsmasker FFP3;  chirurgisch masker voldoet niet.
EID50 = 50% egg infective dose; median egg infective dose
embryonated eggs oeufs embryonnés bebrūtete Eier bebroede eieren; ge-embryoneerde eieren
envelope (of virus) enveloppe Hülle omhulsel; envelop
epidemic (animals)
épizootie Epizootie epizoötie
epidemic (humans) épidemie Epidemie epidemie
epizootic see epidemic
ESWI: European Scientific Working Group on Influenza ESWI: Groupe de travail européen sur la grippe
ESWI: Europäische Wissenschaftliche Arbeitsgruppe Grippe ESWI: 'European Scientific Working Group on Influenza'
fallen stock animaux trouvés morts verendete Tiere gestorven dieren
FFP = filtering face piece (respiratory protection, standard EN149:2001), with 3 levels of efficiency: 1 (low), 2 (medium), 3 (high).
flocks (poultry)
troupeaux; bandes (de volaille)
Geflügel pluimveebestanden
flu virus see also avian influenza virus
virus grippal Grippenvirus griepvirus
Flumadine® (Forest Laboratories, brand name for rimantadine)
Flumadine Flumadine Flumadine
GISRS: Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (WHO) GISRS: Système mondial de surveillance de la grippe et de riposte (OMS) GISRS: globales Influenza-Überwachungssystem (WHO) GISRS: (WGO)
GLEWS: Global early warning and response system (for health threats and emerging risks at the human-animal-cosystems interface) (joint FAO/OIE/WHO, based Rome) GLEWS: Système mondial d'alerte précoce et d'action (pour les maladies animales et les zoonoses émergentes) GLEWS GLEWS
GP see Geflügelpest
H1N1 / H1N2 / H3N2: the only 3 known subtypes of the human flu virus. H1N1 / H1N2 / H3N2 H1N1 / H1N2 / H3N2 H1N1 / H1N2 / H3N2
H5N1: see influenza A (H5N1) virus
H5N1-like (virus in humans), see hybrid

H7N3: another strain of avian flu, responsible for outbreak in NL 2003.
haemagglutin (HA) (= the 'H' in H5N1) hémagglutine Hämagglutin hemagglutine
highly pathogenic; high pathogenic
très pathogène; hautement pathogène; fortement pathogène hochpathogen zeer pathogeen; hoog pathogeen
HPAI: highly pathogenic avian influenza IAHP: influenza aviaire hautement pathogène HPAI: hochpathogene aviäre Influenza HPAI: hoog pathogene aviaire influenza
human-to-human transmission; human-to human spread
transmission d'homme  à homme; transmission interhumaine
Mensch-zu-Mensch-Übertragung overdracht van mens tot mens
humanised (virus, antibodies) see hybrid
humanisé (virus, anticorps)
humanisiert (Virus, Antikörper) gehumaniseerd (virus, antilichnamen)
hybrid virus (the mutant resulting from combination of the avian virus with a human strain) virus hybride Hybridvirus; Mischvirus mengvirus
incursion of virus incursion du virus Eindringen des Virus indringen van het virus
infected holding, as in Council Directive (EU) exploitation infectée Seuchenbetrieb besmet bedrijf
influenza A (H5N1) virus (first isolated from terns in South Africa in 1961. Responsible for outbeak in Hong Kong 1997, S.E. Asia 2005...) virus de la grippe A (H5N1) Influenza A (H5N1)-Virus influenza A (H5N1)-virus
intermediate host hôte intermédiaire Zwischenwirt tussengastheer
IP infected premises (UK usage, cf infected holding
isolate isolat Isolat isolaat
IVPI: intravenous pathogenicity index (test) IVPI: indice de pathogénicité intraveineux IVPI: intravenöser Pathogenitõtsindex IVPI: intraveneuze pathogeniteitsindex
lentogenic (Newcastle disease) lentogène lentogen lentogeen
live virus virus vivant Lebendvirus levend virus
low pathogenic faiblement pathogène wenig pathogen; gering erkrankend
laag pathogeen
LPAI: low pathogenic avian influenza IAFP: influenza aviaire faiblement pathogène LPAI: gering (oder schwach) pathogene aviäre Influenza
LPAI: laag pathogene aviaire influenza
mass culling abattage de masse Massenschlachtung massaruiming; grootschalige ruiming
master seed virus; master seed virus de souche mère
mesogenic (Newcastle disease) mésogéen mesogen mesogeen
migratory birds oiseaux migrateurs Zugvögel trekvogels
mortality mortalité Sterblichkeit sterfte
multiple organ failure (MOF)
insuffisance polyviscérale Multi-Organversagen; multiples Organversagen meervoudig orgaanfalen but Dutch mostly uses the EN term
neuraminidase (the 'N' in H5N1) neuraminidase Neuraminidase neuraminidase
Newcastle disease (virus is the NDV); also called avian pseudo-plague; avian pneuoencephalitis; (in Asia) Ranikhet disease maladie de Newcastle; pseudo-peste aviaire; pneumoencéphalite aviaire; (en Asie) maladie de Ranikhet Newcastle-Krankheit; atypische Geflügelpest; Pseudo-Geflügelpest; Pneumoenzephalitis; (in Asien) Ranikhet-Krankheit Newcastle ziekte; pseudovogelpest; (in Azië) Ranikhet ziekte

NIAID: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (USA)

NIBSC: National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (UK)
OFFLU: OIE/FAO network of expertise on animal influenza (launched 2005 specifically for bird flu, extended 2009 to all animal influenzas) OFFLU: Réseau scientifique mondial OIE/FAO pour le contrôle des grippes animales OFFLU: OIE-FAO-Kompetenz-Netzwerk für Influenza bei Tieren
OFFLU:  gezamenlijk OIE-FAO- netwerk van expertise over influenza (reflects OFFLU's old name)
OIE see World Organisation for Animal Health
oseltamivir (antiviral) oseltamivir Oseltamivir oseltamivir
outbreak flambée; éclosion (Canada)
Ausbruch uitbraak
pandemic pandémie Pandemie pandemie
pathways for spread voies de transmission Übertragungwege  overdrachtswegen
PEP: post-exposure prophylaxis
person-to-person see human-to-human
poultry volaille Geflügel pluimvee
powered hood: part of respiratory protective equipment recommended for poultry handlers, cf. TH3P cagoule à ventilation assistée Atemschutzhaube mit Gebläseunterstützung (lucht) kap met aanblaasunit; kap met aangedreven lucht
primary viral pneumonia pneumonie virale primaire (ou primitive) primäre virale Lungenentzündung (oder Pneumonie)
primaire virale pneumonie (of longontstekking)
prodromal phase; prodromal stage
phase prodromique Prodromalphase; Vorläuferphase prodromale fase; prodromaal stadium
proprietary name; brand name (drugs) nom de spécialité Arzneiname merknaam
protection zone, defined in Council Directive (EU) zone de protection Schutzzone beschermingsgebied
reagent kit trousse diagnostique
Reagenzienkit reagenskit
reassortant; reassortant virus (one produced by reassortment) virus réassorti Reassortant reassortant; reassortant virus
reassortment: process whereby 2 types of virus (e.g. bird flu and regular seasonal flu) invade a host, swapping segments of their genetic code and giving rise to a new, possibly more virulent strain.
réassortiment Reassortment reassortment
receptor binding (properties) (capable, capacité de) lier les récepteurs Rezeptorbindende (Eigenschaften) receptor bindende (eigenschappen)
reference laboratory see VLA
laboratoire de référence Referenzlabor referentie laboratorium
release (of virus from cell) libération Freisetzung vrijkomen
Relenza® (GlaxoSmithKline, brand name for zanamivir) Relenza® Relenza® Relenza®
respiratory secretions protection, see droplet precautions
restricted zone, defined in Council Directive (EU) zone réglementée Restriktionsgebiet;  Sperrgebiet; Sperrbezirk beperkingssgebied
reverse genetics (vaccines: selected genetic information from an actual-case virus is merged with a laboratory virus.) génétique inverse Rückwärtsgenetik; Reversgenetik 'reverse genetics'  (Dutch writers almost always use the EN term)
rimantadine (antiviral)
rimantadine rimantadine rimantadine
ruffled feathers (symptom) plumes ébourifées; plumage hirsute gesträubtes Gefieder ruw verenpak
SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome: type of pneumonia first reported February 2003 in South China)
SRAS (syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère) SARS (schweres akutes Atemwegssyndrom) SARS (ernstig acuut luchtwegen syndroom; ernstig acuut ademhalings syndroom)
seed strain (vaccine manufacture) souche semence Saatimpfstamm zaaistam
seed virus (vaccine manufacture)
virus semence Saatvirus zaaivirus
sentinel bird (unvaccinated, placed in flock, quarantine facility etc. to see if it catches the virus) oiseau sentinelle Sentinel-Tier sentinel-dier
shedding (of viruses) excrétion; élimination
uitscheiding; excretie
'silent' reservoir
réservoir silencieux
stilles Reservoir stil reservoir
species-specific spécifique à leur espèce artspezifisch soortspecifiek
spike (proteins on virus surface) spicule 'Spike'; Stachel 'spike'
spread (verb, see also transmission) se propager spreiden; zich verspreiden
Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health (SCFCAH) (EU) Comité permanent de la chaîne alimentaire et de la santé animale (CPCASA)
Ständiger Ausschuss für die Lebensmittelkette und Tiergesundheit (SALT - though EN acronym often used)
Permanent Comité voor de voedselketen en de diergezondheid (PCVD)
strain souche Stamm stam
subclinical phase phase sous-clinique subklinische Phase subklinische fase
subtype (of virus) sous-type Subtyp; Untertyp
surveillance zone, defined in Council Directive (EU) zone de surveillance Überwachungszone toezichtsgebied
susceptible (birds, people)
susceptible anfällig gevoelig
Symmetrel® (Endo Pharmaceuticals, brand name for amantadine Symmestrel® Symmestrel® Symmestrel®
Tamiflu® (Roche, brand name for oseltamivir) Tamiflu® Tamiflu® Tamiflu®
TH3P (respiratory protection):
TH = turbo hood, 3 = high efficiency; P = particulates
transmission transmission; propagation Übertragung overdracht
tropism (of the virus) tropisme (du virus) Tropismus (des Virus) tropisme (van het virus)
VDP: Veterinary Delivery Partnership (UK)
vector vaccine vaccin vecteur Vektorimpfstoff vector vaccin
velogenic (Newcastle disease) vélogène velogen velogeen
viral isolate isolat du virus Virusisolat virusisolaat
viral load (measured level of a virus in the blood, not quite the same as 'viraemia', q.v.) charge virale; virémie Viruslast viruslast
viral receptor récepteur viral Virusrezeptor virusreceptor
viraemia; viremia (presence of a virus in the blood, not necessarily quantified; older term for 'viral load')
virémie Virämie viraemie
virulent (highly dangerous, causing severe illness or death) virulent virulent virulent
VLA = Veterinary Laboratories Agency (Weybridge, UK): international  reference laboratory for AI recognised by EU, FAO, OIE. Subsumed into the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (2011) and later the Animal & Plant Heath Agency (2014)
waterfowl oiseaux aquatiques Wasservögel watervogels
wet market: (esp. in S.E. Asia) food market selling  live poultry, fish, etc. marché d'animaux vivants; 'wet market' Nassmarkt; 'wet market' 'wet market'
World Organisation for Animal Health, still routinely known by its historical name of OIE (Office International des Epizooties - Paris, 1924).  Has updates on avian flu on its main site, plus a dedicated site. OIE: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé Animale OIE: Internationales Tierseuchenamt OIE: Internationaal Bureau voor Besmettelijke Veeziekten
zanamivir (antiviral) zanamivir zanamivir zanamivir
zoonosis: animal disease transmissible to humans (synonym "zoonotic disease"); or the process of such transmission zoonose Zoonose zoönose

Page created by Alison Gaunt.
Last updated: 21 November 2018

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